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The Flag of South Carolina. 










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APR 10 ii^:^. 




The purpose in revising Simms' History of South Carolina was 
to make the book better suited for study by grade pupils. The 
book has been entirely re-written and the text greatly simplified. 

The editor gratefully acknowledges the invaluable aid extended 
in revising the text by Miss Carol F. Robertson of the Union City 
Schools, Miss Ina H. McNally of the Sumter City Schools and 
Miss Octavia Walden, Rural School Supervisor of Spartanburg 
County. These gifted teachers read and constructively criticized 
sections of the book while it was in manuscript. 

The thanks of the editor are rendered to Mr. A. S. Salley, Jr., 
Secretary of the Historical Commission of South CaroHna, without 
whose help neither this edition nor previous editions would have 
been possible. Mr. Salley compiled the list of governors of South 
Carolina appearing in the appendix. Acknowledgement is also 
made to Colonel Holmes B. Springs and to Colonel J. M. Johnson 
for assistance in preparing the last chapter. 

M. C. S. O. 
Greenville, S. C. 

William Gii.more Simms. 



I, The French Protestant Colony 1 

II. The English Colony at Charles Town 7 

III. Growth of the English Colony 15 

IV. Quarrels Between Proprietors and People 20 

V. Wars in the Province 28 

VI. The Pirates 36 

VII. The Overthrow of the Proprietors 45 

VIII. Under the Rule of the English King 50 

IX. The Cherokee War 60 

X. Life in the Province 69 

XI. Royal Restrictions on Provincial Trade 77 

XII. Breach Widens Between King and Carolina 82 

XIII. The Province Becomes a State 89 

XIV. The Opening of the Revolutionary War 97 

XV. British Capture Charles Town 102 

XVI. The Rising of the Partisans 106 

XVII. The Partisans Turn the Tide 112 

XVIII. The Partisans Capture British Posts 123 

XIX. Victory for the Partisans 130 

XX. South Carolina Becomes a State in the United States. 137 

XXI. How the State Developed After the Revolution.... 143 

XXII. The War of 1812 and South Carolina Statesmen.. . . 153 

XXIII. States' Rights Movement 160 

XXIV. South Carolina Secedes from the United States .... 176 
XXV. The War Between the Sections Begins 184 

XXVI. Second Year of the War — 1862 190 

XXVII. Third and Fourth Years of the War — 1863 and 1864 . . 195 

XXVIII. Downfall of the Confederacy 204 

XXIX. South Carolina Under Radical Government 210 

XXX. Overthrow of Radical Government 220 

XXXI. Industrial Changes 230 

XXXII. Dissatisfaction with the State Government 236 




XXXIII. Schools and Colleges 243 

XXXIV. War and Progress 252 

XXXV. Social and Industrial Development 256 

XXXVI. The United States Goes into the World War 261 

XXXVII. South Carolina Troops in the World War 270 

Appendix: Governors of South Carolina 287 

Index 295 



1. Visits to America. After Columbus discovered America 
in the year 1492, the strongest nations of Europe all wanted to 
make settlements and build forts in the New World so that they 
might own it. England, France and Spain sent men in ships 
to America to find out about the country. When these men 
came back, they told wonderful tales of the beauty of the New 
World, but what they talked most of was the chance of grow- 
ing rich by finding gold there. They also told about the Indians, 
a race of people with copper-colored skins, who lived in America. 
Some of these men who sailed from Europe saw the coast of 
South Carolina and gave to this part of America several names, 
among which was "Florida." 

2. First Colony in United States. France was the first 
nation to send men to live in the part of America which is now 
our own country. This French settlement was made in the year 
1561 in what afterward became South Carolina. 

3. Why the French Came. The 
Roman Catholic church was the strong- 
est church in France. The French 
Protestants, or Huguenots, did not be- 
lieve in the Catholic faith, and the 
Catholics would not let them worship 
God as they chose. Admiral Coligny 
of France, who was himself a Protes- 
tant, got leave from Charles IX, the 
French king, to send a colony to 
"Florida," as South Carolina and all 
this part of America were then called. admiual coligny, 

™, . 1 • » • Who sent the French 

llieir new home m America was to be Colony to Carolina. 


a place in wliieli the French Protestants could worship God in 
peace. Admiral Coligny selected Jean Ribault, who was an able 
sea captain and a good Protestant, to take charge of the colony. 
Two ships were provided in which Ribault and his party of 
Protestants set sail from France. 

Entuance to Pout Royal Harbor into Which Ribault Sailed. 

4. French Reach Port Royal. In May, 1561, Ribault 's two 
ships reached the coast of what is now Beaufort County in 
South Carolina and anchored in a beautiful harbor. To this 
harbor, ' ' because of the largeness and fairness thereof, ' ' Ribault 
gave the name of Port Royal, by which name we still call it. 
The French landed on the northern side of Port Royal harbor. 
After their long voyage from France, the sight of the great live 
oaks and cedars filled them with delight. They saw turkeys, 
quail and other birds in the woods and found that with their 
nets they could catch great numbers of fish. After they had 
rested and eaten of the game and fish, the French rowed up the 
harbor in their small boats. They had gone only a little way 
when they saw on the shore some Indians who ran into the woods 
as the boats drew near. The Indians had been cooking a young 
lucerne (wild cat) and for this reason the French called this 
place Cape Lucerne. Rowing farther, Ribault and his men 


entered a river. There they saw other Indians, both men and 
women, half hidden in the woods. These were afraid at first 
of the white men, but, when Ribault made friendly signs to them, 
they saw that his men meant no harm and beckoned for them to 
come ashore. The Indians brought presents of skins, baskets 
made of palmetto leaves, and a few pearls, which they freely 
gave to the strangers to show their friendliness. 

The Indians Welcome Ribault and His Men. 

5. Fort Charles Built. Ribault decided to make his settle- 
ment on one of the islands in Port Royal harbor. The island 
he chose is now called Parris Island. Here he built a fort of 
earth and logs in which he placed provisions and powder. 
Ribault named it Fort Charles in honor of King Charles IX of 
France. Then Ribault left twenty-six men at the fort under 
command of Captain Albert, and, after promising to send ships 
to them, he sailed away to France. 

6. Life at Fort Charles. The twenty-six Frenchmen Ribault 
left at Fort Charles were lazy. Instead of planting grain for 
themselves, they depended for food upon their Indian neighbors. 


Audusta, a powerful Indian chief, was their greatest friend. 
He invited them to his village and gave them provisions. Before 
long he had none himself. Then the Frenchmen went to the 
Indian chief, Couexis, and his brother, Ovade, who generously 
gave them a supply of corn, beans and meal. The French had 
hardly returned from their visits to these two chiefs when 
their fort burned down and all their provisions were lost. The 
kindly Indians hurried to help them rebuild the fort and to 
supply them with food again. 

7. Troubles among the French. The Indians, lazy them- 
selves, had planted barely enough corn to last the season. Their 
gifts to the French used this up, and the Indians were forced 
to live on roots until harvest time. While the French at Fort 
Charles were thus hard pressed for food, other troubles started. 
These began about a common soldier who was hanged without a 
trial by Captain Albert. This captain had been, from the first, 
very stern and harsh with his men. "While they were still angry 
with him for hanging the soldier, he aroused them still further 
by his treatment of La Chere, a soldier who was a great favorite 
with all the men. He sent La Chere to an island about nine 
miles from the fort and left him there to starve. As a result, 
the other Frenchmen rose suddenly and killed Captain Albert. 
Then they brought La Chere back from the island where they 
found him almost dead for want of food. 

8. French Leave Fort Charles. The French at Fort Charles 
began now to long for their homes. No word came from France. 
They lost hope of ships coming with other settlers and food 
aboard. They decided finally to leave the New World where, in 
spite of the kindness of the Indians, they had suffered much 
from starvation. Consequently, they began to build a small 
ship in which to sail to France. The tall pines at Port Royal 
furnished them with resin and moss for calking the ship. The 
timber and planks they needed they hewed by hand from the 
trunks of trees. The Indians brought them cords for tackle, 
and out of their own shirts and linen they made sails. At last 


The Frenchmen Left at Port Royal 
Sailed Away in a Boat They Built. 

the little ship was ready for 

sea. A fair wind blew, and 

the French set sail from Port 


9. Voyage to France. 

They sailed without trouble 

fully a third of the way 

across the Atlantic Ocean. 

Then the wind stopped blow- 
ing. For three weeks their 

little vessel scarcely moved. 

Their food began to give out. 

Finally, all they had to eat 

was twelve grains of corn a 

day. Then they gnawed 

their shoes and leather jackets. Many of them died. The boat 

began to leak, too, and those of them who were left had to work 

night and day bailing the water out to keep the boat from 


10. La Chere's Sacrifice. 
During all of this suffering, La 
Chere, the soldier who had been 
rescued from the island, had 
tried to keep up their spirits 
by telling them that they would 
soon reach land. Once La Chere 
said that in three days they 
would see land. At the end of 
this time, there was no land in 
sight, and there was no food. 
The Frenchmen were in despair. 
La Chere proposed that one of 
them should die to save the rest. 
They drew lots to see which it 

RiBAULT AND AN INDIAN CHIEF. ShOUld bC aud tllC lot fcll tO 




him. Without a struggle, this brave fellow bared his neck to the 
stroke of a knife. His starving comrades greedily drank his 
blood and divided his flesh among them. They were picked up 
by an English ship soon aftei*ward. La Chere's sacrifice en- 
abled some of them to live to see France again. 

11. Fort Caroline. Not knowing that the French had left 
Port Royal, three ships under the command of Rene Laudonniere 
were sent from France with provisions for them. Laudonniere 
reached America in 1564, three years after Ribault had built 

Fort Charles at Port Royal. When he 
found that Fort Charles had been de- 
serted, he sailed south down the Atlan- 
tic coast and built a fort which he 
named Fort Caroline. The Spaniards, 
in the meantime, made a settlement at 
St. Augustine in what is now the State 
of Florida. The Spaniards claimed the 
whole country and declared that the 
French had no right to live at Fort 
Caroline. The Spaniards were Roman 
Catholics and hated the French at Fort 
Caroline, because they were Protestants. 
Finally, the Spaniards went to the 
French settlement and killed the French to the last man. Then 
they placed on a tree a sign which read: ''We do this not to 
Frenchmen, but to heretics." The French were later avenged 
by de Gourges, who sailed from France for this purpose. He 
killed the Catholics at Fort Caroline, and changed their sign 
to read: "I do this not to Spaniards, or Catholics; but to 
traitors, robbers and murderers." 

12. French Gave Carolina Its Name. The French made no 
more attempts to plant colonies in this section. They left noth- 
ing in this part of America except a few names. Their visits 
resulted in firmly fixing the name "Carolina" on this region. 
This name they gave it in honor of Charles IX, their king, whose 
name in Latin was Carolus, from which comes Carolina. 

Charles IX, 

The French king for whom 

Carolina was named. 



13. A Gift from the English King. For more than a 
hundred years after the French left Port Royal, no white men 
came to settle in Carolina. In 1663, Charles II, king of England, 
gave Carolina to eight English noblemen. The king's gift in- 
cluded all of the country lying along the Atlantic coast of 

Map illustrating the enormous extent of the territory given by Charles II to 
the Lords Proprietors. The part which afterwards became South Carolina 
is shown in black. 

America south of Virginia, where the English had a colony, and 
north of what is now the State of Florida, where in 1663 the 
Spaniards were already firmly settled. On the west, Carolina 
stretched to the Pacific Ocean, then called the "South Seas." 
This vast country which Charles II gave to the eight lords in- 
cluded the land in which lie the present states of North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Georgia on the Atlantic coast and all states 
west of them to the Pacific Ocean. The eight noblemen who 
were thus favored by the king were: Anthony, Lord Ashley; 
the Earl of Clarendon; the Duke of Albemarle; William, Earl 
of Craven; John, Lord Berkeley; Sir George Carteret; Sir 
William Berkeley; and Sir John Colleton. These lords were 




friends of Charles II and, by taking his part against his enemies, 
they had helped him get back the throne of England, He 
rewarded them with the gift of Carolina, 

14. Rights from the King. In giving Carolina to the 
eight noblemen, King Charles II stated plainly in the charter, 
under which they were to own the land, that people who went 

to live in Carolina should have certain 
rights. In the first place, no laws were 
to be made for Carolina, unless the peo- 
ple consented and, for the purpose of 
making laws, the people were to be called 
together from time to time. In the sec- 
ond place, King Charles said that people 
were to be allowed to worship God as 
they chose in Carolina, and must not be 
forced to worship Him according to any 
one faith against their wills. Moreover, 
the king gave the eight owners of Caro- 
lina the power to give titles of nobility 
to any persons in Carolina they thought 
fit to receive them, just as he himself 
did in England. 

15. The Lords Proprietors. The eight English noblemen 
formed a company which they called the "Lords Proprietors." 
They hoped to make money by sending settlers to Carolina and 
renting the land to them. These lords, as the name of their 
company shows, were the proprietors or owners of Carolina and, 
when they decided to plant a colony there, they expected to 
enrich themselves by doing so. 

16. The Fundamental Constitutions. The Lords Proprie- 
tors made in London laws for the government of the colony 
before sending settlers to Carolina. By doing this, the Proprie- 
tors tried to take away one of the rights given by the king to peo- 
ple who might go to Carolina. As there were no settlers yet in 
Carolina, they could not consent, of course, to the laws the 

Charles II, 
The English king who 
gave Carolina to eight 
noblemen in 1CG3. 


A Ship of About the 
Year 1070. 

Proprietors now made. John Locke, a great English philosopher, 
wrote these laws for the Proprietors, and called them the 
"Fundamental Constitutions." The laws provided that the 
noblemen to be appointed in Carolina were to be called Land- 
graves and Caciques, Landgrave being 
an old German title and Cacique the 
Indians' name for their chiefs. A large 
amount of land was to go to each Land- 
grave and Cacique under Locke's laws 
and their titles were to pass down to 
their oldest sons. These laws for Caro- 
lina also provided for setting up eight 
Supreme Courts and for the meeting of 
a Parliament, a law-making body like 
our present day legislature. 

17. The English Settlement. In 1669, six years after 
Charles II gave Carolina to the Lords Proprietors, these noble- 
men fitted out three ships to make a settlement at Port Royal. 
They gave the command to Joseph West and directed him to go 
first to the Island of Barbadoes, an English settlement in the 
West Indies. At Barbadoes, he was to see Sir John Yeamans 
and take further orders from him. When the ships reached 
Barbadoes, Sir John Yeamans went with them to Bermuda, and 
there appointed William Sayle to be governor of the new colony. 

Sayle had been a sea cap- 
tain. When Yeamans 
made him governor, he 
was quite old and feeble. 
On arriving at Port 
Royal, Governor Sayle 
was met by an Indian 
chief, the Cacique of 
Kiawah, who told him 

Map showing the original site of Charles "^^^ ^^^ fierce Wcsto 
Town on the west side of Ashley River. Indians who then lived 



around Port Royal would kill any white settlers. He said that 
the Westoes were cannibals, and advised the English to go to his 
country to live. Sayle consented and in April, 1670, landed on 
the western shore of the river in the Kiawahs' country. The 
English called their settlement Charles Town in honor of the 
king of England and named the river, the Ashley, after Anthony, 
Lord Ashley. 

1 8. Building Charles Town. The colonists, with the help 
of some negro slaves they had brought with them, began immedi- 
ately to build forts, to lay out streets for a town and to put up 
houses. The country of the Kiawah Indians was good. Deer, 
turkeys, rabbits, turtles and fish were to be had in plenty. 
However, the English suffered many hardships. They had to 
cut the timber for their houses and clear away the thick woods 
before they could plant crops. In the low, flat country along 
the Ashley River, the climate was hot and they suffered much 
during the summer after they landed from their hard labor in 
the sun. 

ig. Indians of Carolina. At the time the English came, 
twenty-eight Indian tribes are said to have been living in Caro- 

,^.^_^___, lina. These tribes 

vN^^? ^ r. .. \ \ could have put alto- 
gether 50,000 fierce 
warriors in the field. 
Fortunately for the 
settlers, these Indian 
tribes were so busy 
fighting among them- 
selves that they did 
not unite against the 
whites. The Indians 
in Carolina lived in 
log houses which they 
covered with woven 
grass matting to keep 

Map showing about where the Indian Tribes lived 
in Carolina when the English settlers came. 


out the rain and cold. Their only roads were a few paths 
through the forests, but they traveled a great deal by water in 
canoes which they made by hollowing out the trunks of large 
trees with fire and sharp stones. The Indians planted a little 
corn. Their chief food was game from the forests and fish from 
the streams. For weapons, they had at first only bows and 
arrows and stone hatchets. The skins of the animals they killed 
with these provided them with the few clothes they wore. The 
Indian women did all of the work, while the men spent their 
time in fighting, hunting, fishing, or in idleness. 

20. Danger from Indians, The Kiawah Indians, whose 
chief invited the English to his country, were always friendly 
to the settlers at Charles Town, but they were not strong enough 
to protect them from other warlike Indian tribes who wanted 
to drive the colonists away. The warlike Westo and Stono 
Indians, as they were nearest Charles Town, were the most 
troublesome. They would hide in the thick woods and let fly 
their arrows at all settlers who came near them. These un- 
friendly Indian neighbors forced the colonists to stand always 
ready to fight. While some of the English slept, others kept 
watch. If a man cut a tree in the forest, he was protected by 
another man who stood near with a gun in his hand. So fierce 
and cunning were the Westo and Stono Indians, the settlers at 
Charles Town did not dare lay aside their arms even for a 
moment to gather oysters on the shores of the creeks. Fear 
of the Indians kept them out of the woods. But for the fish in 
the Ashley River, they would have starved probably before they 
raised their first crop. 

21. The Temporary Laws. The colonists at Charles Town 
found that the Fundamental Constitutions did not meet the needs 
of so simple a settlement as theirs. There were not more than 200 
people in the colony. The Lords Proprietors soon sent out a 
set of Temporary Laws for them to use until more people came 
to Carolina. 

22. Governor Sayle's Death. Governor Sayle died in 



March, 1671, from the effects of hard work, exposure and old 
age. A few days before his death he resigned as governor, and 
at a meeting of the Council nominated Joseph West to act in his 
place until the Proprietors should appoint another governor. 

23. The First Indian War. 
While West was acting as gov- 
ernor, the Kussoe Indians, 
urged on by the Spaniards in 
Florida, became so bold that 
West declared war against them. 
Going into the Kussoes' coun- 
try, the English took many of 
them prisoners and conquered 
the tribe. This was the first of 
many wars with the Indians in 

24. Move to Oyster Point. 
In 1672, the Proprietors ap- 
pointed Sir John Yeamans gov- 
ernor of Carolina. They com- 
manded him to lay off a new 
town and move the colony there. 
The site of Charles Town on the 
west bank of the Ashley River 
was too low and unhealthy and 
could not be reached by large 
vessels at low tide. A neck of 
land called Oyster Point was 
chosen for the site of the new 

town. At the tip of this point of land, the Ashley met the 
Etiwan River, which the English renamed the Cooper. The new 
town on Oyster Point they also called Charles Town. 

25, Proprietors Angered. The Proprietors now quarreled 
with Governor Yeamans, because he had gone several thousand 
dollars into debt. He had used the money for building forts, 

A Carolina Indian. 



mounting cannon, arming the men and improving the new 
Charles Town. The Proprietors wanted to be repaid the money 
they had spent on the settlement of Carolina and demanded 
that the colonists 
send them ship- 
loads oftim- 
ber. Unless the 
timber was sent, 
they said they 
would not send 
any more powder 
and provisions to 
the colonists. The 
people still looked 
to England for 
much of their food 
because they had 
not yet cleared 
enough land to 
plant all they 
needed and un- 
friendly Indians often laid waste their crops. 

26. The O'Sullivan Riot. The provisions did not come 
from England, and the colonists were in despair. In their dis- 
content, they started a riot in Charles Town under the leader- 
ship of Florence O'Sullivan who commanded the island in the 
harbor which now bears his name (Sullivan's Island). The riot 
threatened the ruin of the colony, but Governor Yeamans quieted 
the people and sent ships to Virginia and Barbadoes for food. 
Just at this time, a ship arrived from England bringing new 
settlers and food. This cheered the people to new efforts to 
make the settlement a success. 

27. Spaniards Attempt Harm. The Spaniards in Florida 
heard of the riot in Carolina. They th6ught it a good time to 
attack Charles Town and take Carolina for Spain. They set out 

Moving From the First Site of Charles Town to 
Oyster Point. 


to destroy the settlement and had reached St. Helena Island 
when the ship arrived at Charles Town with the new settlers. 
Governor Yeamans then sent a ship with fifty men to St. Helena. 
The Spaniards went back in haste to St. Augustine without 
waiting to fight. 


28. Disturbing Conditions. Governor Yeamans was suc- 
ceeded by Joseph West, who served faithfully and well for eight 
years as governor. West found it hard, however, to keep the 
people satisfied. While Yeamans was governor, the Lords 
Proprietors, thinking that the colony was large enough to be 
governed by the Fundamental Constitutions, had put these laws 
into force. The people were discontented because this was done, 
and divided into two parties. One party was made up of the gov- 
ernor, the Council and the officers, all of whom were sworn to 
obey the Proprietors and carry out their laws. The other party 
was made up of the people who felt that the colony was still 
too small to be governed by the laws in the Fundamental 

29. Religious Troubles. Besides the disagreement over 
the Fundamental Constitutions, the people in Carolina were 
divided as to their religions. The Proprietors had made the 
Province a Church of England (Episcopal) settlement. Many 
of the settlers did not belong to the Church of England. These 
were called "Dissenters." They were a sober, serious people 
and frowned upon all gaiety and amusements. The people who 
belonged to the Church of England were called "Cavaliers." 
The Dissenters thought that the Cavaliers dressed too gaily and 
spent too much time on amusements. The Cavaliers, in their 
turn, made fun of the Dissenters. The Council and officers who 
held the power in Carolina were Cavaliers. The Dissenters 
claimed that they were neglected and had no rights. In short, 
all of the troubles which the people had in England at this time 
over religious questions were renewed in Carolina. 

30. Taking the Land. Because the king of England had 




given the land in Carolina to the Lords Proprietors, these noble- 
men felt that the Indians had no right to it, despite the fact that 
the Indians had lived on the land for hundreds of years before 
the English ever came. The Proprietors told the colonists not 
to buy land from the Indians, but to take it and drive the 
Indians away. This caused so much hard feeling among the 
red men that later, Anthony, Lord Ashley, the oldest and wisest 

English Traders Dealing With Indians. 

of the Proprietors, changed the order and commanded the 
colonists to buy the land from the Indians. Even this Avas not 
fair for, when they bought from the red men, they gave them in 
return only trinkets and beads, things of little value. 

31. New Settlers Come. Immigrants began to come to 
Carolina in small parties from England and from Barbadoes 
and other places in the West Indies. The Proprietors were 
pleased, and encouraged new settlers to come by promising them 
many favors, especially if enough of them came together to form 
a town. A number of French Protestants were given land free. 


The Proprietors expected them to make silk in Carolina as they 
had done in France and to grow olives and grapes in the rich 
soil of the Province. 

32. Growth of Charles Town. At this time, there were 
about a hundred houses in Charles Town and more were being 
built. Sixteen ships came regularly to trade with the people of 
the town. The population was between 1,000 and 1,200. The 
arrival of new settlers was rapidly increasing the population. 
In Charles Town the first church was built about 1682, or about 
thirteen years after the first colonists came. It was called the 
English church. 

33. Advantages of Prov- 
ince. The colonists en- 
joyed good health in Caro- 
lina. A letter written at this 
time by a colonist says that 
the little children in the 
Province were rosy-cheeked Indian hunter. 
and plump. The land was 

rich, producing with little labor, after the woods were cut down, 
crops of rice, wheat, rye, oats and peas. Crops of corn were 
harvested twice a year. From the corn, the colonists made 
bread, beer and strong brandy. The number of cattle, hogs and 
sheep increased greatly. Because of its mild winters, the climate 
suited the negro slaves, who by this time were quite numerous. 
Settlers coming from the West Indies usually brought their 
slaves with them. The hunting in the forests around Charles 
Town was good. The richer colonists hired Indian hunters to 
supply their tables with deer and other game. It was easy to 
make a living in Carolina. In fact, the colonists' crops were so 
large that they shipped grain to Barbadoes and Jamaica where 
they exchanged it for sugar, rum and molasses. 

34. The Indian Trade. The first colonists who grew rich 
in Carolina made their money by trading with the Indians. The 
Proprietors tried for a time to carry on this trade through 



private agents so that they, instead of the colonists, would profit. 
But they were unable to prevent the people of Carolina from 
dealing with the Indians. The colonists sold in England great 
quantities of furs and skins for which they had given the In- 
dians guns, brandy, beads and trinkets. This trade with the 
Indians produced far more wealth in Carolina at this time than 

35. Indian and Negro Slaves. The Proprietors had given 
the colonists permission to sell as slaves all Indian prisoners of 
war. The Carolinians found this an easy and profitable way to 
get rid of their red-skinned enemies. Many of the Indians, taken 
in fights, were sent as slaves to the West Indies. In return for 
the Indian slaves, the colonists received negro slaves from the 
West Indies to work the rich fields in Carolina. When they sold 
Indians as slaves, the colonists were not troubled with any 
thought of wrong ; for, at this time, by the rules of war, prisoners 
were looked upon as the property of the captors to do with as 
they pleased. 

36. Pirates Encouraged. When the English settled Caro- 
lina, King Charles II encouraged piracy, because the lawless sea 
robbers could be of service to him by plundering the Spanish 
settlements in Florida and elsewhere. The pirates proved such 
useful allies that King Charles favored them in many ways. 

He actually made a knight 


Pirates in 
CnAULEs Town. 

of Henry Morgan, one of 
the worst of the sea rob- 
bers. With Charles so 
openly favoring the pi- 
rates, the Carolinians often 
took advantage of the help 
the sea robbers could give 
them against their deadly 
foes, the Spaniards, in 
Florida. This friendship 
with the pirates might have 


kept up indefinitely had the pirates plundered only the Span- 
iards. But they began to rob merchant vessels of England, too, 
and tlie English Board of Trade complained to the Lords Pro- 
prietors that the Carolinians were encouraging the buccaneers. 

37. New Laws. The Parliament, or legislature, met in 
Carolina at the end of 1682. At this Parliament, laws were 
passed for establishing a militia and for building roads through 
the forests. Laws were also enacted to punish swearing and 

38. West Removed. At this time, the Proprietors, without 
good reason, removed Governor West from ofi&ce although he 
had served the Province ably for eight years. Joseph Morton 
was made governor in West's place. 



39. Cause of Strife. The Lords Proprietors often changed 
the laws without the consent of the people of the Province. They 
did this despite the fact that the king had plainly stated that 
no laws for the Province were to be made unless the people 
consented. Yet, almost every time a ship from England reached 
Charles Town, it brought news that the Proprietors had made 
some new law for the people to obey or had changed some of the 
existing laws. This very naturally angered the people of Caro- 
lina, and made them bitter against the Lords Proprietors. 

40. Counties Formed. By order of the Proprietors, the 
Province of Carolina was divided into three counties. These 
were Berkeley County, which included Charles Town; Craven 


ff •^'"^[ro^^T'^^ 


k X. 



^^:s<^""l^ -J^sySv County ^JT^a 

v^^ County 

(Til II ii .^ -^ ColUtVH Inkt 

^^••Wft^-^-"^ ' 

Map showing part of tho Low-Cnnnlry in the rrr)vin(0 of Carolina about the time 
wh(Mi the Lords Proprietors ordered it divided into counties. 



County, to the north of Berkeley; and Colleton County, to the 
south of Berkeley. Port Royal was in Colleton County. There 
were only a few scattered settlers along the shores of some 
rivers and streams near the coast in Craven County. 

41. Unfair Election. The Parliament, or legislature, was, 
at this time, composed of twenty members, besides those of the 
Council. The Proprietors said that ten of these members must 
be elected from Berkeley County and ten for Colleton County. 
There were too few settlers in Craven County for it to have any 
representatives in Parliament. The election was held in Charles 
Town. The people in Berkeley elected all of the twenty mem- 
bers, and left out Colleton. This enraged the Proprietors when 
they heard of it, and they ordered the Parliament dissolved. 

42. Foreign Debts. Before the members of Parliament 
returned to their homes, they passed several important laws. 
One of these laws made it illegal to prosecute a colonist for fail- 
ing to pay foreign debts. This meant that any debts the colon- 
ists had made in England or other European countries, before 
settling in Carolina, would be cancelled. The Proprietors, dis- 
pleased at this, declared that the law was unjust and contrary 
to the king's honor. 

43. Scots at Port Royal. During Morton's term as gover- 
nor of the Province a party of Scots came to Port Royal which 
the French under Ribault had found so fair when they settled 
there in 1561. The Scotch colony was led by Lord Cardross, a 
nobleman of Scotland, who left his native land because he was 
not allowed freedom of religion there. In selecting Port Royal 
as the place to make their homes, the Scots forgot that the 
Spaniards at St. Augustine would be near and cruel neighbors, 
ready to pounce on any unprotected settlement. 

44. New Governor Comes. Morton was having a more and 
more difficult time as governor of Carolina, because the interests 
of all of the colonists were not the same as those of the Pro- 
prietors from whom he received his instructions and to whom 
he had sworn obedience. Then, too, in the Province itself, some 



of the people took the part of the Proprietors while the others 
wanted more liberties and fewer laws. Governor Morton was 
between two fires. The Proprietors, disappointed because he did 
not carry out their instructions to the letter, removed Morton 
from office and appointed as governor Sir Richard Kyrle of 
Ireland. The Proprietors believed that Sir Richard, who had 
never been in Carolina and had no friends there, would follow 
their instructions and enforce their laws, without being in- 
fluenced by those colonists who wanted more rights. 

45. West Leaves Carolina. Sir 
Richard died soon after he reached the 
Province. Joseph West was then made 
governor for the third time. During 
his two former terms, he had by his 
faithfulness, goodness and wisdom done 
more for Carolina than any other gov- 
ernor. Yet twice the ungrateful Pro- 
prietors had removed him for no reason 
except to give the office of governor to 
men of more wealth and prominence. 
West's third term as governor lasted 
less than a year. He had trouble from 
the very beginning of his term. The 
Proprietors first demanded that he make the people pay rents to 
them in money instead of in crops. Money was very scarce in 
the Province, and the people saw no reason why they should 
send it to England to pay rent instead of sending parts of their 
crops which the Proprietors could sell in England for money. 
Along with the demand to pay their rent in money, the Pro- 
prietors sent a new set of laws for the Province which repealed 
all existing laws. This caused so much strife and discontent that 
even the wisdom of Governor West could not overcome it. This 
good governor resigned his office and left Carolina in the sum- 
mer of 1685. 

46. Trouble over New Laws. The members of Parliament, 

William, Earl of Crave x 
One of the Lords Pro- 


which a little later was named the ' ' Assembly, ' ' were called to- 
gether and asked to agree to the new set of laws. Almost two- 
thirds of the members refused. These were asked to resign. 
They did so and went to their homes protesting against the in- 
justice and misrule of the Proprietors. 

47. The King's Revenue Officer. Charles II had died, 
and his brother, James II, sat on the throne of England. King 
James in 1685 sent to Carolina an officer called the Collector of 
the King's Revenue. The duty of this officer was to collect taxes 
for the king on goods shipped to the Province and to see that all 
goods shipped for sale to the Province or out of the Province 
were carried in English ships manned by English sailors. He 
was also to see that cotton, indigo and sugar (later rice was 
added) were not sold by the colonists to any country except 
England or her provinces. The people seriously objected to 
this interference with their trade. So they paid no attention to 
the Collector and carried on their business as they had before he 
came. The Collector complained of this treatment and wrote to 
England that the independent spirit among the people would 
in time bring about rebellion. As a matter of fact, laws like 
those the Collector tried to enforce did cause the Revolutionary 
War, a rebellion which made South Carolina and other provinces 
in America independent. 

48. Spaniards Destroy Scotch Colony. In 
1686, the Spaniards of St. Augustine fell sud- 
denly upon the Scots at Port Royal and killed 
a great number of them. They took others cap- 
tive and only a few escaped to Charles Town. 
The Spaniards, burning houses and wasting 
crops as they went, also visited Edisto Island. 
Here they burned the plantations of Governor 
Morton and others. Then they hastily retreated 
to their ships before men could be got together 
to fight them. Spanish Soldier. 

49. Chance of Revenge Denied. The 


colonists, many of whom were still forced to fight the Indians as 
they had done when they first came, were aroused by the killing 
of the Scots at Port Royal and wished to rush to arms against 
the Spaniards. Preparations were begun to invade Florida and 
attack St, Augustine, but in the midst of them Governor Joseph 
Morton, who had been reappointed after West left, died. James 
Colleton soon reached Carolina, bringing his commission as 
governor. He stopped all preparations for the attack on Florida, 
threatening to hang anyone who defied him. The Proprietors 
gave their approval to Colleton's action. The colonists were 
indignant. They felt that the Province was dishonored in not 
avenging the dead Scots of Port Royal. 

50. Proprietors Fear King. The real reason for breaking 
up the plan to attack Florida was that King James II of 
England was at this time friendly with Spain. The Proprie- 
tors were afraid that if they allowed the colonists to fight the 
Spaniards it would anger King James. There had already been 
trouble between the Lords Proprietors and the king, because the 
people of Carolina had refused to obey the Collector of the 
King's Revenue. The Proprietors feared that, were the king 
displeased again, he would take Carolina away from them. Nat- 
urally, they did not want to lose this Province which was grow- 
ing so rich that it promised great wealth to them if they could 
continue to receive the rent from the lands on which the colonists 

51. Discontent Grows. The colonists, displeased at Colleton 
for stopping the attack on Florida, grew bitter against him when 
he enforced the laws of the Proprietors to the letter. He made 
the people pay rent in money. This and other acts of his led 
to rioting. When Governor Colleton tried to call out the militia 
to break up the rioting, the people were enraged almost to the 
point of rebellion. Rebellion, however, did not actually come, 
Seth Sothell succeeded Colleton as governor, 

52. Grateful for Rice. While Sothell was governor, John 
Thurber, a retired sea captain living in New England, asked the 


Assembly to give him a sum of money for the great service he 
had done Carolina when a ship of his brought some seed rice to 
Charles Town. Grateful to the sea captain, the Assembly voted 
him money. In 1691, money had also been voted to Peter Jacob 
Guerard, who had made a machine which successfully took the 
husk off of rice, making it possible to prepare it for market 
quickly in quantities. It is certain that rice had been grown in 
the Province for a number of years before Guerard invented his 
machine for husking it. It is believed that Thurber brought his 
seed rice from the Island of Madagascar on the east coast of 
Africa. It was probably of the variety known as ' ' gold rice, ' ' 
because of its yellow husk. In time, gold rice, grown in the 
fresh water marshes on the coast of Carolina, was recognized as 
the best in the world. Vast fortunes were made by the rice 

53. Province Discontented. Sothell was accused of enrich- 
ing himself at the people's expense while governor, and was 
called to England for investigation of the charges. Colonel 
Philip Ludwell of Virginia became governor in his place. Both 
the people and Proprietors soon grew displeased with Ludwell. 
The Proprietors removed him from office and appointed Thomas 
Smith as governor. The colonists were so discontented and so 
bitter against the Proprietors and their laws that Smith found 
it impossible to govern. He wrote to the Proprietors asking 
them to appoint some one else and told them in his letter that, 
unless one of the Proprietors came to Carolina and settled the 
disputes with the people, he and many others would leave the 

54. People Quieted for a Time. Without carrying out his 
threat, Thomas Smith died in 1694, while still governor. The 
Proprietors, however, adopted Smith's wise suggestion and sent 
out as governor one of their number, John Archdale, who had 
bought the share of Sir William Berkeley. Archdale was a 
Quaker. He made a good governor and ruled the Province in 
peace. When he was ready to leave, the people gave him their 



Anthony, Lord Ashley, 

The wisest of the Lords 


thanks which they had never offered any other governor. Arch- 
dale made the members of the militia much better soldiers. He 
got the friendship of the Indians and opened communications 
with the Spaniards. This improved the 
trade of the Province. But the term 
served by the wise Archdale as governor 
proved merely a lull in the discontent in 
Carolina. The real differences between 
the Proprietors and the people were not 
by any means settled by the Quaker 
Proprietor. Joseph Blake became gov- 
ernor after Archdale left. 

55. Free Library. While Blake was 
governor in 1698, a free library was 
established for the citizens in Charles 
Town. It was the first of its kind in 
America. The opening of the library 
showed that the Carolinians, despite their troubles, were making 
progress and proves also that many of the early settlers were 
people of culture who were eager to improve their minds even 
while undergoing the hardships of a pioneer life. 

56. King's Officer Complains. The Collector of the King's 
Revenue now urged the king of England to take the Province 
away from the Lords Proprietors. The Collector said that the 
colonists ignored him completely ; that they traded with whom 
and how they pleased without obeying the king's laws ; that they 
were still friendly with the pirates, so friendly, in fact, that it 
was almost impossible to convict a man of piracy in the courts 
of Carolina. This was not true, however, as many pirates were 

57. Disasters in the Province. During this period, the 
Province was overtaken by many disasters. A fearful hurricane 
blew down nearly all the houses in Charles Town, and the force 
of the wind drove the sea over the fallen houses, drowning many 
people and sweeping away much property. This hurricane was 


followed by a fire which burned down many of the houses re- 
built after the storm. Then smallpox, a dreaded disease in 
those days, carried death to many homes in Carolina. Scarcely 
had the colonists begun to breathe freely after all these evils, 
when yellow fever broke out. All of the public officers and one- 
half the members of the legislature died of yellow fever as well 
as a great number of other colonists. Few families in Carolina 
escaped unharmed by some of these disasters. The people were 
in despair, and many thought of leaving the Province which 
God seemed to have marked for every sort of disaster. 


58. Attack on Spaniards. Upon Governor Blake's death in 
1700, James Moore acted as governor until the Proprietors ap- 
pointed a man to fill the place. England and Spain had become 
unfriendly again. So Moore prepared to punish the Spaniards 
at St. Augustine for killing the Scots at Port Royal. He knew 
that now the Proprietors would not object as they had done a 
few years before when the Carolinians wanted to make the attack. 
The colonists forgot their troubles with the Proprietors in 
planning to march against the Spaniards, whom they hated, A 
few prudent Carolinians thought that the Province was still too 
weak to go to war, but the vast majority of the people were 
eager to fight. Money was raised to arm soldiers and equip 
ships. Six hundred men were taken into the militia companies. 
Indians were armed to help. Merchant vessels were fitted out 
to carry men to St. Augustine. In September, 1702, all things 
being ready, Governor Moore sailed from Port Royal with some 
troops, while Colonel Robert Daniell, a brave soldier, led a 
party of militia and Indians to attack St. Augustine by land. 

59. Carolinians Defeated. As the colonists had not made 
a secret of their plans, the Spaniards had every opportunity to 
prepare for the attack on their city. They laid away enough 
food for four months in their strong castle at St. Augustine, 
and sent to the West Indies for the Spanish fleet. When Moore 
and Daniell reached the city, they threw the militia and Indians 
around the castle and tried to batter down its walls with cannon 
they had brought. They soon found that the walls were too 
strong, Moore then sent Daniell in a vessel to Jamaica for large 
cannon, while he with the troops kept the castle surrounded. 
During Daniell 's absence, a Spanish vessel appeared and Moore, 




leaving his ships in the harbor, retreated with his men by land. 
Daniell, upon liis return from Jamaica, narrowly escaped cap- 
ture by tlie Spaniards, This unwise expedition left tlie Province 
with a large and burdensome debt. 

60. Appalachians Punished. Moore ceased to act as gover- 
nor when Sir Natlianiel Jolmson arrived in Carolina, with a 
commission as governor from the Proprietors. Moore persuaded 
Governor Johnson to let him attack the Appalachian Indians, 
who lived in what is now the State of Georgia. Moore wanted 
to wipe out the stain the defeat at St. Augustine had left on his 
reputation. The Appalachians, urged on by the Spaniards, had 
been most unfriendly to the people in Carolina. Johnson decided 
to let Moore punish the red men if he could. Moore raised some 
troops and, at their head, marched into the heart of the wild 
country of the Appalachians. With fire and sword, he struck 
terror into the souls of the Indians, of whom he is said to have 
killed 800 besides capturing many more and burning some of 
their towns. 

61. French Attack Charles Town. France and Spain 
were at this time at war with England. These two nations 
planned to attack Charles Town, because it was an English 
settlement. In August, 1706, a French fleet under Monsieur 

Le Feboure arrived. Charles Town 
had been prepared in every possible 
way to withstand the attack. A lookout 
had been set on Sullivan's Island, and 
five separate smokes, raised by the look- 
out, told the people of the city the num- 
ber of vessels in the French fleet. Yel- 
low fever was raging in Charles Town 
when the French fleet appeared. Many 
of the citizens had left for their planta- 
tions to escape the disease. On the ap- 
sin Nathaniel Johnson, pearance of the French ships. Colonel 

Who rofused to surrender tiT-iT t-.i 

CaroUna to Le Feboure. William Rhctt put the men of the toWll 


under arms. Governor Johnson, returning from his plantation, 
called on the friendly Indians for help. Men from all over the 
Province came to the aid of Charles Town. Cannon were put 
on board such ships as happened to be in the harbor, and the 
command of the little fleet was given to Colonel Rhett. 

62. The Demand for Surrender. Meanwhile, the French 
ships anchored near Sullivan's Island, out of range of the cannon 
of the forts in Charles Town. Le Feboure sent a messenger with 
a flag of truce to Governor Johnson. The messenger was blind- 
folded and carried from fort to fort. While in a fort, the 
bandage was removed from his eyes, and he was allowed to see 
the troops. By shifting the troops hastily from one fort to an- 
other, the French messenger was led to believe that many more 
men were defending the town than was really the case. Le Fe- 
boure 's messenger demanded of Governor Johnson that he sur- 
render Charles Town and the Province of Carolina to the king of 
France and told him that he would be given but an hour in 
which to make his reply. "I do not need a minute," answered 
Governor Johnson. "I hold this country for Queen Anne of 
England. I am ready to die, but not to deliver up my trust," 
The messenger returned to Le Feboure with this spirited reply 
and the false news that there were many soldiers in the forts of 
Charles Town. 

63. French Retreat. Colonel Rhett then moved down the 
harbor with his little fleet to attack the French vessels. Le 
Feboure did not wait for the attack. By swifter sailing, he got 
his ships out of the harbor and escaped before a shot could be 

64. Change in Governors. In 1710, Edward Tynte suc- 
ceeded Sir Nathaniel Johnson as governor. Tynte died shortly 
after his arrival in the Province, and Robert Gibbes held the 
office until Charles Craven, whom the Proprietors appointed to 
succeed Tynte, arrived to take the place, 

65. A Free School. The year 1710 is a date to be remem- 
bered, because in that year the Assembly passed a law provid- 



ing for founding and building a free school at Charles Town. 

Previously, the only children who could get an education were 

those whose parents were rich enough to pay schoolmasters. 

But, with the opening of the free school, a start was made 

toward enabling poor children to learn to read and write. The 

Assembly passed the law, because 

some good people who had died 

in Charles Town left sums of 

money to be used to found a free 

school. /) ^ 

66. The Two Carolinas. Jt~f // J 
Several years previous to 1710, )/ ^ / 

the name "North Carolina" was ^ 

used for the northern part of the (f^'^^i 
Province of Carolina which lay (j r . 

nearest to Virginia, and the name /( /X ^ ^ j^ /f 
"South Carolina" for the south- M/^ ^^^V^e^A^ 
ern part of the Province out of J^P /7/i/-fx.f;f^^ 
which were afterwards made the l^ Iff Uk 

State of South Carolina and the 
State of Georgia. The Province / //f7/^/^ 

of Carolina was not divided by ^ ^ ^^ ^^ '' ^0^^— C — 
the Proprietors into the two prov- Jltxj /o^cf^^ 
inces of North and South Caro- ^ 

lina until 1713, but these two 

names for the two parts of the 

Province gradually came into ^'"''"''''pHoL^ETons" ^'"'"''^ 

general use before that time. 

67. Aid to North Carolina. Some of the Indians in 
North Carolina went on the warpath in 1711 and mur- 
dered a number of colonists. South Carolina was called 
upon for help. Colonel John Barnwell of South Carolina with 
a force of thirty-three white men and 495 Indians was sent to 
aid the North Carolinians, who were very hard pressed by the 
Tuscarora Indians. Barnwell and his men had to march through 


a wilderness of unbroken forest, deep swamps and tangled 
thickets, crossed only by Indian trails, as no roads connected the 
northern and southern parts of Carolina in those days. Barn- 
well overcame these difficulties and, reaching North Carolina, 
he severely punished the Tuscaroras. In one battle, he killed 
300 of them and captured 100 more. At last he attacked one of 
the Indian towns on the Neuse River and, after killing a number 
of the savages, he forced the others to ask for peace. Then he 
returned to South Carolina with his men. 

68. Beaufort Town. The Lords Proprietors gave orders in 
1711 for the building of Beaufort Town near Port Royal, where, 
twenty-five years earlier, the Scots under Cardross had been 
murdered by the Spaniards and where the French Protestants 
under Ribault had landed in 1561. The town was named for 
the Duke of Beaufort. It became in time the richest town of its 
size in America, due largely to the money made by its citizens 
from rice planting. 

69. The Yemassees. A large and powerful Indian tribe, 
the Yemassees, owned large tracts of land around Port Royal 
near where Beaufort Town was to be built. They had been 
friends with the Carolinians for years and had helped them 
fight the Spaniards and other Indians and had been ready to 
help them fight the French under Le Feboure who, as we have 
seen, sailed away without attacking Charles Town. While Gov- 
ernor Craven was ruling South Carolina, the Yemassees began 
to complain that the colonists were taking too much of their land 
and driving away the deer and other game. These Indians also 
took a dislike to the white traders, who came to their villages 
and bought skins and furs from them. These traders, the 

Yemassees said, did not 
treat them fairly. The 
Spaniards probably did a 
great deal to cause this 
ill-feeling among the 
Indians in a Canoe. Yemassees as they still 



wanted to destroy Carolina and take the Province for their 
king and v/ere bitterly opposed to the building of Beaufort 

70. Province in Great Danger. The cunning Yemassees 
suddenly fell on the plantations near Pocotaligo and murdered 
more than ninety settlers who were not able to defend them- 
selves against this unexpected attack. Joined by Creek and 

Indians Building Canoes From the Trunks of Trees. 

Appalachian Indians, the Yemassee chiefs divided their warriors 
into bands, one of which attacked Port Royal and the other St. 
Bartholomew's Parish. The Indian warriors were about 7,000 
in number. So fierce and bold were they that it seemed likely 
that they would wipe out the Province of Carolina. Besides the 
7,000 Indians in arms, word came to the colonists that all of the 
Yemassees from Florida to Cape Fear in North Carolina were 
banded together and marching to join those who were already 
on the warpath. 

71. Craven Prepares for Attack. Governor Craven acted 



now with great spirit and bravery. He would not let ships sail 
from Charles Town, and thus kept all the sailors on them to 
defend the Province. He also saved the food the ships would 
have carried away. He seized guns and powder wherever he 
found them and armed a force of trusty negro slaves to assist 
the men in the militia companies. Craven also asked aid from 
England, but this was refused him. The Proprietors, fearing 
that the Province would be destroyed, tried to get help from the 
English Board of Trade, but the Board said that if the Pro- 
prietors could not protect their own Province they ought to 
give it up. 

72. Fighting the Yemassees. While Gover- 
nor Craven was hurriedly making ready to meet 
the Indians, the Yemassees in scattered bands ad- 
vanced upon Charles Town from different direc- 
tions, scalping and killing all the settlers they 
could find. Thomas Parker, captain of a militia 
company, met a band of the savages and, in the 
fight that followed, he and many of his men were 
killed. At Goose Creek, near Charles Town, 
about 400 of the Indians surrounded a rude fort 
in which seventy white men and forty negro 
slaves had taken shelter. These stoutly fought the Indians off 
for a time, but when the Indians asked for peace, the Carolinians 
foolishly listened and opened the gate of their fort. The tricky 
Indians entered the fort and without warning butchered the 
white men and negroes. 

73. Carolinians Defeat Yemassees. Governor Craven 
raised a force of 1,200 men and marched out of Charles Town to 
fight the Indians in the woods and swamps. The men under 
Craven knew how to fight the Indians and the war whoop of 
the savages had no terrors for them. Advancing from Charles 
Town, they met the Indians at their camp, where a desperate 
fight took place. The Yemassees were driven from their camp. 
The Carolinians followed them and kept close at their heels until 

Indian Child. 


they swept them from the country. The Yemassees were shel- 
tered by their friends, the Spaniards, within the walls of St. 
Augustine. The flight of the Yemassees from Carolina left much 
valuable land open for new settlements. 

74. King Asked to Take Province. After the Yemassees 
were driven away, Governor Craven sailed from Carolina to 
England, leaving Robert Daniell to act as governor. The As- 
sembly met at Charles Town and decided to ask the king to take 
the Province away from the Lords Proprietors and govern it 
himself. The Assembly described to the king the distress in 
which the war with the Yemassees had left the Province and 
appealed to him to take it away from the Proprietors and put 
it under his protection and care. 


75. Pirates Appear Again. During the time the people of 
South Carolina were engaged in a death struggle with the 
Yemassees, the ships of the pirates began to come again to the 
coast of the Province and seize and rob vessels. Daniell captured 
a party of pirates and hanged them while he was acting as gov- 
ernor. This, however, did not drive the other sea robbers away, 
and, when Robert Johnson came to South Carolina to be gover- 
nor, he was called upon at once to take measures against the 
bold and bloody buccaneers. 

76. King Promises Pardon. King George I, who became 
king of England upon the death of Queen Anne, had promised 
to pardon all pirates who gave themselves up within twelve 
months. He sent English ships of war to the Island of Provi- 
dence in the West Indies, where many of the pirates had head- 
quarters, and these ships broke up the nest of pirates on this 
island. After being driven away from Providence, the pirates 
swarmed to the coast of North and South Carolina, where the 
many creeks and bays afforded splendid places in which to hide 
their ships. Some of them accepted the king's promise of par- 
don, but the wild, lawless life and the rich spoils they took from 
captured ships induced many of them to continue to commit 
outrages upon the sea. At this time, there were probably about 
1,500 men engaged in piracy on the Atlantic coast of America. 
They were men of all nations, desperate, cruel ruffians, who 
thought nothing of robbing and burning peaceful merchant 
ships and murdering the sailors if they resisted, or setting the 
crews ashore on desert islands and leaving them to starve. 

77. "Black Beard." After the pirates were forced away 
from the Island of Providence by the English naval force, they 



began to come to the Carolina coast in such 
numbers, that in June, 1718, Governor Robert 
Johnson wrote to England, begging for aid. He 
said in his letter, ' ' Hardly a ship goes to sea but 
falls into the hands of the pirates. ' ' During this 
same month, "Black Beard," a notorious pirate 
whose real name was Edward Thatch, appeared off 
Charles Town with four ships under his com- 
mand. In the first few days after he arrived, 
Thatch took eight or nine vessels which sailed from Charles 
Town. On one of these vessels he captured Samuel Wragg, a 
member of the Carolina Council, who was sailing for England 
with William, his four-year-old son. Some of Thatch's pirate 
crew were sick and in need of medicines. So he armed a boat 
and sent it to Charles Town with a few of his men to tell Gover- 
nor Johnson that if the medicines were not delivered immedi- 
ately, he would send him the heads of Wragg and the other 
Charles Town prisoners. Two days passed and the armed boat 
did not return to the pirate ships. "Black Beard" told Wragg 
and the other Charles Town prisoners to prepare to die. Word 
came, however, that the boat had been overturned and delayed 
in reaching Charles Town. So Thatch was persuaded to wait 
one more day. Meanwhile, Governor Johnson and his Council 
debated swallowing the insult offered by the pirates and sending 
the medicines. The third day came and, as the armed boat did 
not appear, Thatch was certain that his men had been seized 
and swore that Wragg and his fellow prisoners should die. 
Governor Johnson, however, decided to send the medicines. The 
boat returned to the pirate ships before "Black Beard" carried 
out his threat. After robbing Wragg of a very large sum of 
money, "Black Beard" set him and his little son ashore with 
the other prisoners, but not until he had stripped the whole 
party nearly naked. They made their way back to the city, 
arriving in a pitiful condition. "Black Beard's" evil life was 
cut short soon afterward by a party of men sent by the Gover- 



nor of Virginia, who killed this pirate in a desperate fight at 

78. Stede Bonnet. Governor Johnson eagerly awaited a 
chance to wipe out "Black Beard's" insult to Charles Town. 
News soon came to him that Stede Bonnet, another pirate, was 
at Cape Fear River in North Carolina aboard his ship, the 
Revenge, with a crew of sixty desperate men. Bonnet had been 
with Thatch at the time Wragg was captured. He was the last 
man any one would have thought capable of becoming a pirate 
as he was educated, wealthy and middle aged. In 1717, when 
living quietly at Bridgetown in Barbadoes, Bonnet bought and 
armed a ship which he named the Revenge. One dark night 
with seventy ruffians aboard his vessel. Bonnet slipped out of 
the harbor of Bridgetown and began a series of outrages on the 
sea. After some months, Bonnet accepted pardon from the king 
through Governor Eden of North Carolina. But, after accept- 
ing the king's pardon, he set sail on another pirate cruise, first 
changing his name to "Captain Thomas" and the name of his 
ship to the Royal James. Returning from this raid, he sailed 
into Cape Fear River to make some repairs to his ship and get 
it ready for another cruise. 

79. Rhett Goes After Bonnet. 
When the news came to Charles Town 
that Bonnet was at Cape Fear, Colonel 
William Rhett asked Governor Johnson 
to let him fit out two ships and go to 
attack the pirate. The governor readily 
consented. So with the Sea Nymph, 
carrying sixty men, and the Henry 
with eighty more, Rhett sailed for Cape 
Fear in September, 1718. 

80. The Fight at Cape Fear. 
Rhett 's ships reached Cape Fear late in 

Colonel William riiett, ^j^g afternoon and, across the headland, 

W ho fought so galliintly ^ • ^ -, « 

against the pirates. he Sighted tlic masts of Bounct's vessel. 


Unfortunately, in trying to enter Cape Fear River, both the 
Sea Nymph and the Henry ran aground on a sand bar. It was 
late at night before they were floated off by the rising tide. In 
the meantime, the pirates, who were on the watch, sent armed 
men in rowboats to see whether they were ships of war or mer- 
chant vessels. The boats reported that Rhett's ships had cannon 
aboard. Bonnet knew then that at break of day a fight to the 
death would begin. He made all possible preparations, and 

Battle Between tue Ucnnj and the Royal James. 

Rhett did likewise. As day broke, Rhett saw Bonnet's ship 
making sail to try to pass the Sea Nymph and the Henry and 
so get out to sea. Rhett ordered both his ships to make for 
Bonnet as he approached. In trying to escape, the pirate ship 
ran on a sand bar and stuck fast. In attempting to come close 
to her, both Rhett's ships went aground, the Henry not more 
than a pistol shot away from the Royal James and the Sea 
Nymph too far off to assist the Henry. When Rhett found it 
impossible to get the Henry afloat, he ordered a heavy fire 


opened on the pirate ship. The guns on the Royal James replied 
to the fire. The cannon on both ships fired broadside after 
broadside while the crews kept up a hot fire with small arms. 
On account of the positions in which the ships had grounded, 
the pirates had a great advantage over the Henry. The men 
on the latter saw the members of the pirate crew, certain of 
victory, waving their hats for them to surrender and come 
aboard. At last, the rising tide released the Henry from the 
sand bar before the Royal James moved. Then, the advantage 
being on the side of the Henry, the pirate crew wanted to give 
up. Bonnet would not hear to this and threatened to blow out 
the brains of any of his men who would not fight to the last. 
After five hours of fighting, however, Bonnet's crew persuaded 
him to surrender. In this fight, Rhett lost a dozen men and 
twenty-eight others were wounded, six of whom died later. 

8i. Bonnet Captured. Rhett arrived at Charles Town in 
October, 1718, bringing Bonnet and the pirates as prisoners and 
the pirate ship as a prize. The pirate crew was placed in the 
watch-house at Charles Town, but Bonnet under guard was 
allowed to live at the house of the town marshal. Preparations 
were made to try all of them before Chief Justice Nicholas 
Trott at Charles Town. 

82. More Pirates Come. While Bonnet and his crew were 
awaiting their trial. Governor Johnson heard that Moody, a 
notorious pirate, was just outside of Charles Town harbor, in a 
ship of fifty guns on which there were 200 pirates. 
Johnson and the Council armed three merchant vessels and 
prepared Bonnet's old ship, the Royal James, for an attack 
on Moody. Rhett and Johnson had quarreled, and, as Rhett 
would not take command of the ships being got ready to go 
against Moody, Johnson said that he himself would command 
the little fleet. The governor promised to give to men who 
volunteered to go against the pirates all the booty taken on 
board the pirates' ship. In a few days, 300 men had agreed 
to sail with the governor. 


83. Bonnet Escapes. Bonnet with another pirate escaped 
from the liouse of the town marshal, while Johnson was prepar- 
ing his ships to fight Moody. Bonnet is said to have got away 
disguised as a woman. With an Indian and a negro to paddle 
them, the two pirates put out to sea in a canoe, hoping to reach 
the pirate ship just outside Charles Town harbor. The sea 
became rough, and, after being almost drowned, they were forced 
to land on Sullivan's Island, across the harbor from Charles 
Town. They hid themselves on the island among the sand hills 
and in clumps of myrtle and cedar. Governor Johnson offered a 
reward for the capture of Bonnet. Hearing that he was on the 
island, Johnson sent Rhett with a small party of men to take 
him. This Rhett did after killing the pirate who was with 
Bonnet and wounding the Indian and negro. 

84. Bonnet's Crew Hanged. A day or two after Bonnet 
escaped, the members of his crew were tried before Chief Justice 
Trott. Twenty-two of these pirates were found guilty and 
hanged at Charles Town. 

85. Johnson Goes out to Fight. The same day he sent 
Rhett to capture Bonnet, Johnson took the four vessels in his 
little fleet down Charles Town harbor as far as Fort Johnson, 
where they quietly dropped anchor for the night. When the 
morning mist rolled off the sea, Johnson's four vessels, without 
making any warlike display, sailed toward the place where the 
pirates were. 

86. Two Pirate Vessels. As the South Carolinians drew 
near, they saw that instead of the one vessel they had expected 
there were two, one a ship and the other a sloop. The pirates 
were completely deceived by the appearance of Johnson's ships. 
They thought that they were unarmed merchant vessels leaving 
the harbor and tried to cut them off. As the pirate vessels drew 
near to Johnson's four vessels, they ran up the black flag of 
piracy to their mastheads. Johnson raised the English colors 
and let fly at the pirates with all his guns. The pirates were 
dismayed at this show of force from what they thought were 



merchant vessels. Johnson's ship sailed straight for the pirate 
ship and a hot fight at close range was opened. Then, the 
pirate ship hoisted its sails and put out to sea. Signaling two 
of his ships to attack the pirate sloop, Johnson gave chase with 
his two remaining ships to the fleeing pirate vessel. 

Map showing the Province of Carolina and islands in the West Indies 
connected with its history. 

87. Fight in Charles Town Harbor. The two ships left 
by Johnson needed no second bidding to attack the pirate sloop. 
After a desperate battle, the Carolinians boarded the sloop and 
killed every pirate above deck besides taking others prisoners. 
The battle was fought almost in sight of the people of Charles 
Town, who lined the walls of the forts and the wharves while it 


was going on and waited eagerly to see who would be victor. 
A great cheer went up from the throngs of anxious people when 
the two vessels from Johnson's fleet hove into sight with the 
flag of England fluttering from their masts. Soon they reached 
Charles Town and landed in chains the pirates who had not 
been killed. 

88. Johnson Takes Pirate Ship. Johnson and his two ships 
did not overtake the ship of the pirates until late in the after- 
noon, when it was far out at sea. Soon after he got near enough 
to the fleeing vessel to use his cannon, a shot from one of his 
guns disabled it and the pirates hauled down their black flag 
in token of surrender. Going aboard the ship, Johnson found 
locked in it thirty-six women who had been captured while on 
their way to Virginia. 

89. Worley, Not Moody. On returning to Charles Town 
with the pirate prisoners and the women from the ship, John- 
son learned that the ship and the sloop were not commanded by 
the pirate Moody as he had supposed, but by Richard Worley, 
an even more notorious pirate and one who was a terror along 
the American coast. Worley had been aboard the sloop and was 
killed during the fight in the harbor with Johnson's two ships. 

90. Bonnet Convicted. Stede Bonnet was tried by Chief 
Justice Trott four days after Johnson returned from the fight 
with Worley. At the trial. Bonnet was calm. His bearing and 
defense gained the sympathy of the public. He was found 
guilty, though, and sentenced to death. Then his courage 
deserted him and he pleaded pitifully for his life. Bonnet wrote 
Governor Johnson, begging "that the tears proceeding from 
my most sorrowful soul may soften your heart." Bonnet's 
pleas, though they moved the public, had no effect on Governor 
Johnson, who was determined that this pirate should pay for his 
crimes with his life. Bonnet was hanged at Charles Town on 
December 10, 1718. Twenty-three of those captured on Wor- 
ley 's ship and sloop were convicted and hanged shortly before 
Bonnet paid the death penalty. 


91. Danger from Pirates Finally Ended. Despite the 
bravery of Rhett and Johnson in attacking them and the 
promptness with which Justice Trott sentenced captured pirates 
to death, these sea robbers continued to take ships. It was not 
until several months after the stirring fights of the summer 
and fall of 1718, of which we have just told, that two ships of 
war were sent by England to protect Charles Town from the 
pirates, and finally put an end to this danger. However, ex- 
cept for the spirit of Rhett and Johnson, the lives of many 
Carolinians might have been taken by the pirates and un- 
doubtedly the trade of Charles Town would have been ruined, 
as no merchants would have sent ships to a port where they 
were certain of capture. It is well to remember that, just as 
they won the terrible war against the Yemassees without help, 
the people of South Carolina, led by Robert Johnson and 
William Rhett, fought off and conquered the pirates unaided 
at a time when the sea robbers were most numerous and most 
daring on the Carolina coast. 


92. Political Conditions. The relations of South Carolina 
with the Lords Proprietors and with the English king were some- 
what tangled, when the year 1719 began. The Province had one 
set of men in London whose business it was to look after its 
interests with the Proprietors and another set who were there 
for the purpose of getting favors for the Province from the 
king. The king, as we have seen, had an officer in South 
Carolina to collect taxes on goods shipped out of the Province 
and to enforce the English trade laws. The Proprietors, at this 
time, did not depend only on Governor Robert Johnson and his 
Council for news about what was going on in South Carolina, 
but also had men in their pay in the Province whose duty it 
was to send them news. When the South Carolinians appealed 
to the king to take the Province away from the Proprietors and 
put it directly under his care, the Proprietors urged the king 
to let them continue to govern South Carolina. 

93. Assembly Passes Law^s. Meanwhile, the people of the 
Province, through their Assembly, or legislature, were govern- 
ing themselves very much as they pleased. The Assembly passed 
laws to encourage white servants to come to the Province be- 
cause the larger the white population the more protection the 
country would have against the Indians. Laws passed at this 
time provided also for caring for poor people in the Province. 
To raise money to pay the heavy debts made during the 
Yemassee War and in fitting out ships to fight the pirates, the 
Assembly laid a tax on liquors and goods brought into South 

94. Proprietors Break up Assembly. Governor Robert 
Johnson, by his bravery in fighting the pirates and his good 




sense, had made himself very dear to the people. He had been 
appointed, of course, by the Lords Proprietors. Therefore, for 
the sake of this popular governor, the people tried in every way 
to put an end to their quarrels with the Proprietors. The As- 
sembly voted to pay the Proprietors 
rents due them on the lands. The elec- 
tion laws were revised to suit the Pro- 
prietors and in other ways the people 
tried to get along with these English 
lords and gentlemen who, although 
greedy for their rents and eager to keep 
the Province for their own, had turned 
a deaf ear to the appeals of the people 
for aid when the Yemassee Indians and 
the pirates threatened the ruin of South 
Carolina. In the midst of these friendly 
efforts on the part of the Province, the 
Assembly was ordered by the Pro- 
Governor Johnson realized that this was 
not right. He sent a messenger to England to the Lords Pro- 
prietors to beg them not to dissolve the Assembly and to tell 
them that the people of the Province were friendlier toward 
them than they had ever been. 

95. Proprietors Will Not Yield. Governor Johnson's mes- 
senger was received with little courtesy by the Lords Pro- 
prietors. Instead of listening to him and yielding to Johnson's 
good advice, they wrote Johnson a letter in which they criticized 
him for not doing as he was told and ordered him to break up 
the old Assembly at once and call a new one. In insisting so 
unreasonably on dissolving the Assembly, the Proprietors pulled 
down the last prop of their government in South Carolina. A 
new Assembly met according to orders. 

96. Johnson Asked to Govern for King. Events which 
quickly followed the meeting of the new Assembly led to 
the final overthrow of the Lords Proprietors, The people of 

Tub Duke of Albemarle, 

One of tlip Lorils 

prielors to break up. 



South Carolina, whom continual fighting had made self-reliant, 
had no fear of the Proprietors who had governed them so self- 
ishly and so badly for fifty years. The Proprietors had given 
the Province no assistance when it needed it most in the Yemas- 
see War and when the pirates swarmed along its coast. In 
place of aid and assistance, the Proprietors had hampered the 
Province by setting aside sensible laws passed by the Assembly 
and trying to enforce foolish laws of their own. As they had 
proved that they were strong enough to protect themselves 
against their enemies, the Spaniards, the Indians and the pirates, 
the South Carolinians now felt strong enough to protect them- 
selves against the unjust Proprietors. So the Assembly asked 
Governor Robert Johnson, because of the love the people bore 
him, to govern the Province for the king of England, George I, 
instead of for the Proprietors. 

97. Johnson Refuses. Johnson told the Assembly that, as 
he had been appointed by the Lords Proprietors and had sworn 
to obey them, he must be true to his 
oath and his trust. He said, further- 
more, that he could not by any word or 
act of his do anything to aid in the over- 
throw of the Proprietors. Robert John- 
son's refusal showed that he was a truly 
great and honorable man as his bravery 
in fighting the pirates had proved that 
he was a good soldier. 

98. Carolina Becomes a Royal 
Province. After receiving Governor 
Johnson's reply, the new Assembly de- 
clared that the Province of South Caro- 
lina would no longer continue under 
the rule of the Proprietors, but would place itself under the 
rule of His Majesty, George I, king of England. Then the 
Assembly made John ]\Ioore governor of South Carolina and 
elected other officers for the Province. Colonel John Barnwell 

The Eakl of Clarendon, 

One of the Lords 




was sent by the Assembly to tell King George of its action and 
to beg him to take the Province under his protection and govern 
it. This King George agreed to do. No longer able to enforce 
obedience to their orders in South Carolina, the Lords Pro- 
prietors yielded the government to the king. Whereupon, South 
Carolina, in 1719, became a royal Province, after having been 
misruled by the Lords Proprietors for fifty years. 

99. Progress in First 
Fifty Years. These first 
fifty years under the Pro- 
prietors were important be- 
cause, during them, the peo- 
ple of the Province of South 
Carolina laid the foundation 
on which rest many of the 
rights and liberties we enjoy 
to this day. With rare 
courage, the colonists had 
fought and defeated the In- 
dians and pirates at home 
and had then turned and 
overthrown the Lords Proprietors who were misgoverning them 
from England. The 200 colonists who landed on the bank of 
the Ashley River in 1670, had brought with them a love of 
liberty which became stronger the longer they lived in the 
Province. The Province itself had grown and developed during 
these fifty years in spite of the Proprietors. In 1719, there 
were nearly 20,000 people in South Carolina, about half of 
whom were negro slaves. Although busy making a living in a 
new country, hard pressed at times by the Spaniards, Indians 
and pirates, continually interfered with by the meddlesome 
Lords Proprietors, the people of South Carolina nevertheless 
had, as we have seen, built churches, founded free schools and 
even opened a public library in Charles Town. The hardy 
colonists had pushed out from Charles Town, the heart of the 

FoRJiER Powder Maga/^ine of the 
Province of South Carolina Built 
About 1703. 


Province, and made settlements all along the coast in what we 
now call the Low-Country. These colonists suffered all the hard- 
ships and braved all the dangers from Indians which later on 
other hardy men had to face when they in turn settled the 
northern part of the Province, or, as we call it, the Up-Country. 
By 1719, many of the South Carolinians had become rich from 
the Indian trade or from farming or raising great herds of 
cattle. The farmers grew, among other things, the best rice 
in the world, cultivating it with slave labor. In ships from 
Charles Town, they sent to other countries rice, deer skins, salt 
pork, salt beef, hides, butter, lumber, pitch, turpentine and a 
little cotton and silk. The people in the Low Country of South 
Carolina were no longer helpless and struggling. By the time 
the king took charge of the Province, it was almost a little nation 
in itself — a valiant little country in which all South Carolinians 
may take just pride. 


100. First Royal Governor. King George I sent out Gen- 
eral Francis Nicliolson to be the first royal governor of South 
Carolina. This was two years after John Barnwell was sent to 
tell the king that the people wanted him to rule the Province. 
The people of South Carolina received General Nicholson with 
joy, for they expected that under the rule of the king the Prov- 
ince would be wisely governed and free from the political trou- 
bles which had marked the rule of the Lords Proprietors. 

loi. The Form of Government. The king gave to the 
Province of South Carolina a government somewhat like that 
of England. The governor represented the king in the Province. 
The king appointed a Council which was to advise with the 
governor about making the laws and other matters. There was 
to be also a Commons House of Assembly, the members of which 
were to be elected by the men of the Province. The Commons 
House of Assembly was a lawmaking body. We shall hear 
much more of the Council and the Commons House, because of 
the trouble which arose between them over their rights in 
making laws. All laws had to be sent to England for the king's 
approval. Often this meant weeks of delay. Everything con- 
sidered, the new government which the king gave South Caro- 
lina, when General Nicholson became governor, was much better 
than that the people had had while the Proprietors ruled. The 
people of the Province were satisfied with it for the time being. 

102. People Show Their Strength. After three years, 
Governor Nicholson gave up his office, and Arthur Middleton, 
who was then president of the Council, was told by the king 
to take Nicholson's place. Governor Middleton, the Council, 
and the Commons House disagreed soon afterwards about 




issuing paper money. In this disagreement, the old political 
troubles of the days of the Proprietors flared up again, and 
the Province was soon in the midst of a dispute. But the 
people, as a whole, were on the side of the Commons House, 
whose members they had elected. The Commons House finally 
had its way. Thus, in the first disagreement in the Province 
under the rule of the king, the will of the people proved stronger 
than that of the governor and Council who stood for the king. 

A part of the "Back Country" of the Province of South Carolina 
as shown by an old map. The map-maker did not know what this 
part of the Province was like. So he drew rivers, forests and 
mountains to suit his fancy and filled the blank spaces with figures 
of animals, birds and Indians. 

103. The Cherokee Indians. To the north and west of the 
settlements in the Low-Country of Carolina lived the Cherokee 
Indians, a powerful tribe who were fierce fighters and tireless 
hunters. Their men were only of medium height but very 
strong and wiry. The Cherokees dressed in the skins of animals 
killed by their hunters. On their heads, they wore a small lock 
of hair into which they stuck gaily colored feathers. The set- 


tiers in the Low-Country called the land of the Cherokees the 
"Back Country," because it was hack from the coast. 

104, Hunters, Traders and 
Cow Drivers. Three classes of 
white men had already gone into 
the country of the Cherokees. The 
first to make the journey were 
hunters, who went there because 
game was so plentiful. The hunt- 
ers impressed the Indians, who 

. „ TT c^ knew little of guns, with the dead- 

A Pack Horse _ ° ' 

liness of their rifles and often, too, 
by their daring in attacking fierce animals. The hunters on 
returning home told stories of the fine land in the Cherokee 
country. Following the hunters came the Indian traders, the 
second class of white men to go into the Cherokee country. These 
traders made their homes at the Indian villages, some of them 
living there for years and marrying Indian women. The traders 
were shrewd and fearless men. They bought from the Indians 
furs and skins of animals, giving in return guns, powder and 
ball, rum, beads, looking-glasses, hatchets and trinkets of various 
sorts. The traders sent these furs and skins to Charles Town, 
where they brought in the market many times what the traders 
had paid the Indians for them. The skins and furs were carried 
out of the Indian country on the backs of pack horses and 
goods for the traders were brought in the same way. The pack 
horsemen, many of whom were boys, led a wild life full of ad- 
venture and thrills. The third class of men who went into the 
country of the Cherokees were cow drivers. These men built 
cow pens at many places in the ''Back Country." Into these 
pens they drove their herds of cattle to protect them from wild 
animals and thieves. The cow drivers erected log huts for them- 
selves at the pens. Settlements grew up around the pens, be- 
cause the drivers, armed with rifles, gave protection against the 



105. What the Cherokee Country Was Like. The land of 
the Cherokees, which we now know as the Piedmont section of 
South Carolina, was a beautiful, rolling country. Not all of 
it was covered by the forests for there were many open spaces, 
or prairies. On these prairies, grass and wild pea vines grew, 
and along the streams there were vast brakes of cane. The 
green leaves of these canes furnished food for the cattle of the 
cow drivers in the winter when the cold killed the grass on the 
prairies. The country swarmed with game, early accounts tell- 
ing of great numbers of buffaloes, bears, deer, elk, panthers, 
wild cats, and packs of wolves. 

CuEUOKEE Indians, 
Who went with Sir Alexander Gumming to London. 

106. French Try to Turn Indians against English. 
Though the French had never settled in South Carolina since 
Ribault tried at Port Royal, this nation had made settlements at 
several places on the Mississippi River. The French constantly 
sent men to stir up trouble between the English settlers and the 
Cherokees and other Indians. These men would tell the Indians 


that the English meant to take their land, plant it in crops and 
drive away the game. The English were much alarmed over 
the dealings of the French with the Indians, 

107. Cumming Visits Cherokees and Takes Warriors to 
London. Sir Alexander Cumming came from England to Caro- 
lina early in 1730 to visit the Cherokees. Sir Alexander set 
out from Charles Town and met the chiefs and principal warriors 
of the Cherokees at their town of Keowee in what is now Oconee 
County. Sir Alexander was shown the greatest kindness by the 
Indians. He asked their leading men to return to England with 
him to let King George II see what kind of people they were. 
None of the Cherokee chiefs would go, but finally six warriors 
consented to make the long journey. On the way to Charles 
Town a seventh Indian joined the party. In London the Indians 
were greeted by a curious crowd, and we can imagine the aston- 
ishment with which these wild red men from our hills and 
mountains saw the sights of that great city. When they were 
brought before King George II, the warriors said that they and 
their people would remain forever friendly to the English. On 
his part. King George told the Indians that "he took it kindly 
that their people had sent them so far to brighten the chain of 
friendship between him and them." 

108. Johnson Returns as Governor. Near the end of 1730, 
Robert Johnson came to South Carolina again, having been 
appointed by the king governor in place of Middleton. John- 
son brought back with him the seven Cherokee Indians. It was 
very fitting that the king should have given Johnson the place 
as governor, as he had shown himself loyal to the Lords Pro- 
prietors and would not continue to serve as governor when the 
people threw off the heavy rule of these English lords. John- 
son, who knew the Province and its needs, encouraged agricul- 
ture and trade, while he strengthened the forts at Charles Town 
and elsewhere. 

109. Encouraging Immigration. Johnson also carried out 
a plan of the king's advisers to increase the number of people 


in the Province. This plan consisted in laying ont townships, 
containing twenty thousand acres of land, along the banks of 
rivers. This land was to be given in fifty-acre lots, one lot to 
each man, woman and child who settled on it. Townships were 
laid out on the Savannah, Peedee, Santee, Edisto, Black, 
Waccamaw, Congaree, Wateree and Altamaha rivers. A colony 
of Swiss settled on one of the townships on the Savannah River, 


Province to Be Royal Governor. 

calling their new home Purrysburgh after their leader, John 
Peter Purry. A little later another colony of Swiss moved into 
the township of Orangeburgh on the Edisto River. They were 
joined soon by a few settlers from the Palatinate of Germany. 
An Irish colony came to the Province and made their home on 
the Black River at the township of Williamsburgh. 

no. Georgia Founded. Besides aiding and encouraging 
these new settlers in South Carolina, Governor Johnson also 



helped to found what became afterward the State of Georgia. 
The founding of this colony was part of the plan to protect 
South Carolina against the Spaniards in Florida. The leader 
of the Georgia colony was James Edward Oglethorpe, a member 
of the English Parliament. Oglethorpe and his little colony 
arrived in Charles Town and were welcomed by Governor 
Johnson and the people. They were escorted first to Port Royal 
and then across the Savannah River where they selected a site 
for a town which they named Savannah. Slaves were loaned 
them by Carolinians to build their houses. They were also given 
seed rice, horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. Governor Johnson him- 
self presented the Georgia colony with seven horses. South 
Carolina thus had part in founding the State of Georgia. In 
after years the two states were called the ' ' Sister States. ' ' 

III. First Newspaper in Province. Another event of im- 
portance, which took place during Governor Johnson's time, was 
the printing of the first newspaper in South Carolina. This 
was published at Charles Town by Thomas Whitmarsh, a printer, 
and was called The South Carolina Gazette. Copies of this 
newspaper have been preserved and we can read in its pages 
about the people of the Province and how they lived nearly two 
hundred years ago. The Sotdh Carolina Gazette was pub- 
lished on Saturdays. Its pages were 
much smaller than those of newspapers 
of today, being about the size of pages 
in a school geography. 

112. Death of Johnson. Governor 
Johnson died in 1735, deeply mourned 
by all the people of the State. He was 
a wise and kind man and earned for 
himself the name of "The Good Gov- 
ernor Robert Johnson." His brother- 
in-law, Thomas B.roughton, who was 
Thomas buoughton, lieutenant governor, succeeded Johnson 

Who succocdcd Ildhrrt 

Johnson :is Governor. aS gOVCmOr. 



113. Council and Commons House Quarrel. Soon after- 
ward the trouble between the Council and the Commons House 
flared up again. The dispute this time was over the rights of 
the Council in making laws. The Commons House said the 
Council had a right only to advise in the matter of passing laws, 
but no right actually to make them. At the root of the trouble, 
probably, was the fact that most of the members of the Council 
were Englishmen who were said to have bought their places, 
while all of the members of the Commons House were citizens 
of Carolina. When Broughton died, William Bull, senior mem- 
ber of the Council, who had been born in South Carolina, was 
made governor. 

114. Condition o£ the Slaves. The condition of the negro 
slaves in the Province at this time was interesting. These 
negroes greatly outnumbered the white people. By their labor 
they had developed the farms of their owners. Efforts were 
made to Christianize them, as many of them were brought to 
Carolina from the wilds of Africa or after a short stay in the 
West Indies and were heathens. Usually their white mistresses 
instructed them in religion. After a time a society was or- 
ganized to spread the Gospel among them. The slaves were 
regarded merely as merchandise, the property of their masters. 
One of the laws passed in this period laid a tax on "negroes, 
liquors, and other goods and merchandise. ' ' From time to time, 
the increase in number of negro slaves had caused anxiety. A 
tax had been laid on them to discourage bringing more of them 
into the Province, but the English merchants encouraged the 
people of the Province to run into debt to buy slaves. These 
merchants got in return the rice raised by the labor of the 

115. Spaniards Arouse Slaves. The fears of those who 
watched the increase in the number of slaves were justified in 
1739, when there was an uprising of the negroes against their 
white owners. The Spaniards in Florida stirred up the negroes 
by inviting them to come and join their army. Led by a 



Mulberry, the House 
Thomas Broughton 
River, Built in 1714. 

OF Governor 
ON Cooper 

negro named Cato, a body of slaves met at Stono and, starting 
in the direction of Florida, burned cabins and killed settlers as 
they went. At a Presbyterian church, called the Willtown 
church, where the white people had met for worship, the report 

came that the slaves were on 
the march. The men, who al- 
ways carried their guns with 
them in these early days, 
quickly organized and went 
against the slaves. They 
easily overcame them and 
shot Cato and a number of 
others. After this uprising, 
the laws governing the slaves 
were made much more severe. 
II 6. Fire Sweeps Charles 
Town. In 1740, while Bull 
was still acting as governor, a great fire destroyed three hun- 
dred houses in Charles Town. Several people were burned to 
death and many families were ruined. The loss from the fire 
was enormous. Pitying the condition of Charles Town and 
knowing the value of the trade with South Carolina, the English 
government gave a large sum of money for the relief of the fire- 
swept city, 

117. Governor Glen Disappointed. James Glen, a Scotch- 
man, was the next royal governor to reach South Carolina. 
Glen came to the Province thinking that he would have almost 
the power of a king. He was disappointed and angered when 
he found that the people were practically governing themselves. 
He wrote some of his friends in England that the independence 
shown by the people would cause trouble for the king if it were 
not checked. The high offices in the Province were filled by men 
from England, whom the king appointed. The Commons House, 
whose members were South Carolinians, used its power to pre- 
vent these high officers from running affairs as they pleased. 


ii8. Indigo Enriches Province. About this time, another 
great crop which was to add to the wealtli of South Carolina 
became important. This was indigo, a plant from which a 
beautiful blue dye was made. The crop thrived in the Province 
and by 1747 considerable quantities of it were being sold each 
year for large sums and sent abroad to the makers of dyes. 
Moses Lindo, a Jew who understood the sorting and grading of 
indigo, aided greatly in marketing the crop. Without his help, 
the planters would not have secured as good prices. Lindo de- 
serves great credit for making the raising of indigo a success in 
South Carolina. 


1 19. The French and the Cherokees. The Cherokee Indians 
grew restless as colonists built houses farther and farther back 
from the coast toward their villages. The crops the Indians 
planted were very small. They depended largely on game for 
food. With the approach of the settlers, the red men saw danger 
of the game being all killed or driven away. The agents of the 
French among the Cherokee Indians used this fear with great 
effect in stirring up feeling among the Indians against the 
English. The French agents told the Indians, too, that the 
English would kill all of the warriors and sell their squaws and 
children into slavery. The French agents were very active 
among the Cherokees at this time, because England and France 
were at war. The field of war was extended to America where 
the French and English fought many battles in the North. 

120. Cherokees Angered. The Cherokees sent a party of their 
warriors with the South Carolina troops who went to aid the Eng- 
lish in the North against the French. This party was headed by 
Little Carpenter (Attakullakulla), a great Cherokee chief. For 
some reason Little Carpenter and nine of his warriors deserted. 
They were arrested on their way home, disarmed and brought 
back. They were too crafty to show any anger over their treat- 
ment at that time. Another group of Cherokees quit the party a 
little later and, coming back through North Carolina, they killed 
twenty-two white people, carrying their scalps in triumph to 
their towns of Settiquo and Telliquo. A few more Cherokees lost 
their horses while they were coming back home through Virginia. 
To replace these horses, they stole several from white settlers. 
These settlers went after the Indians and killed ten or twelve 
of them. Such happenings aroused deep anger among the 




Cherokees. The French agents were quick to take advantage of 
this and to work their rage up to fever heat against the English. 

121. Forts in the Cherokee Country. In October, 1753, 
Governor Glen went to the Cherokee country, made a treaty 
with the chiefs and bought several thousand acres of land from 
them opposite their town of Keowee on the river of that name. 
Here the governor immediately built a fort which he called Fort 
Prince George, A little later another fort named Fort Loudoun 
was built on the Little Tennessee River across the Blue Ridge 
Mountains in what is now the State of Tennessee. Both these 
forts were built at the earnest request of the Cherokee Indians 
for protection to the trade between them and the people of the 
Province. Troops were placed in these forts. 

122. Settlers Killed. All this 
time the French were at work stir- 
ring up the Cherokees. A band of 
young warriors fell upon the English 
settlers nearest to them and killed 
all they could find. William Henry 
Lyttelton had just succeeded Glen as 
governor of South Carolina. As soon 
as Lyttelton heard of the killing of 
the settlers, he demanded that the 
Indian murderers should be delivered 

to him by their chiefs to be put to death. It was thought that 
the murderers came from the towns of Settiquo and Telliquo 
and the officer commanding Fort Loudoun called for the sur- 
render of the chiefs of these towns. At the same time the com- 
mander of Fort Prince George stopped a quantity of powder 
and ball which was being sent by the traders to the Cherokees. 
The wise old men among the Indians did not want war, but the 
young men, called "red sticks," were eager for it, held war 
dances and waved their tomahawks. 

123. Lyttelton Offends Chiefs. So many of the Cherokee 
chiefs were against war that it was agreed that they were to 

An Up-Countrt Settler's 



Ruins of a Fort Wnirii Stood on 
Beaufout Riveu and Was Named for 
governou llttelton. 

hold a "talk" with Governor Lyttelton. Accordingly, about 
thirty chiefs went to Charles Town. Among them was Great 
Warrior (Oconostota). Lyttelton promised the Indians that 
they would be protected in passing through the settlements and 

would be allowed to go back 
to their homes in safety from 
Charles Town. The Chero- 
kee chiefs wanted to tell the 
governor that it was only the 
"red sticks/' the young In- 
dians, who had committed the 
murders and who wished for 
war. Lyttelton refused to 
hear the chiefs, and treated 
them very badly when they 
met him in Charles Town. 
He acted very unwisely, 
showing that he knew nothing 
about Indians and their ways. William Bull, who was a native 
of Carolina, and other members of the governor's Council who 
knew more about Indians than Lyttelton did, urged him to hear 
the chiefs. He refused to do so and the Cherokees were in- 
dignant. Lyttelton told the chiefs that as the murderers had not 
been surrendered he would go with his army into the Cherokee 
country and take them. 

124. Lyttelton Marches to Cherokee Country. Carrying 
out this threat, Lyttelton called the militia to meet at the Con- 
garees and set out himself in October from Charles Town for 
the Cherokee country. He was accompanied by the chiefs whom 
he had promised to protect and return in safety to their coun- 
try. Many prominent South Carolinians went with him to take 
part in the expected fighting. Among these were Christopher 
Gadsden, William Moultrie and Francis Marion, of all of whom 
we sliall hear much more in later times. At the Congarees, about 
1,500 men of the militia gathered. They were not equipped for 


fighting and made a very poor show. The haughty Indian chiefs 
must have been amused at Lytteltou's threat to take the mur- 
derers with this sorry army. After tliey left the Congarees, 
the Indian chiefs were treated as prisoners, though Lyttelton 
had promised to protect them. When Lyttelton arrived at Fort 
Prince George, the chiefs were thrown into a miserable hut 
scarcely large enough to hold a half dozen people. 

125. Lyttelton Decides Not to Fight. On the march from 
the Congarees to Fort Prince George, Lyttelton saw that his 
little army, untrained and poorly armed, could not fight suc- 
cessfully against the Cherokees. So he sent to Little Carpenter 
and asked him to come to Fort Prince George. Little Carpenter 
did so and Lyttelton told him that he would begin war unless the 
murderers were given up. Little Carpenter persuaded the 
governor to release Great Warrior to help him bring in the 
murderers. A few of the Indians, guilty of murdering settlers, 
were given up, but Little Carpenter found it impossible to bring 
all of them to the fort. However, in 'December, 1759, a treaty 
was signed with the governor by Little Carpenter, Great Warrior 
and four other Cherokees. Tlie treaty said that the Indian 
chiefs imprisoned at Fort Prince George should be held there 
until an equal number of Indian murderers were given up. 
When Lyttelton got back to Charles Town, he was hailed as a 
conqueror. There had been no blood shed, but a treaty had been 
signed and the people showered praise upon him. Lyttelton, 
though, had acted most dishonorably toward the chiefs as he had 
broken his word when he imprisoned them. 

126. Cherokees Start War. Very soon after Lyttelton re- 
turned to Charles Town, fourteen South Carolinians were killed 
by the Cherokees within a mile of Fort Prince George. The 
Indians, led by Great Warrior, surrounded the fort. Great 
Warrior had been made a relentless enemy of the Province by 
Lyttelton 's treatment of him. This crafty chief persuaded the 
commander of the fort to come outside by telling him that he 
wanted to talk to him. The commander was killed by the 



Indians, and two of his lieutenants who came out with him were 
wounded. The soldiers immediately fell upon the Indian chiefs 
they held in the fort and butchered all of them. There were few 
men in the Cherokee tribe who did not lose a friend or relative 
among these chiefs. This meant war to the knife. In small 
parties, the Cherokees rushed down upon the unprotected set- 
tlements and, singing their war songs, they killed men, women 
and children wherever they found them. 

127. Massacre of the Cal- 
houns. A band of Indians 
came upon the Calhoun 
family as they were attempt- 
ing to escape with their 
neighbors to Augusta from 
their home in the Long Canes 
section of what is now Ab- 
beville County. The Indians 
attacked them just at dusk 
as they were unharnessing 
their horses from their 
wagons and arranging their 
camp for the night. Some of 
the party escaped on the 
horses through the darkness. 
Many of them, however, were 
killed and scalped by the Cherokees, who set the woods on fire 
and stole all of the goods in the wagons. Afterwards numbers 
of the children were found in the woods, some fearfully cut and 
others lying on the ground scalped, but still living. Patrick 
Calhoun, who returned to the spot to bury the dead, found 
twenty bodies at the camp, among them his mother's. 

128. Governor Bull Asks Help. The people were greatly 
alarmed over the Cherokees' attack. Early in 1760, the legis- 
lature provided money for raising seven companies of soldiers 
to protect the settlements in the "Back Country." Governor 

GitAVE jOF John C. Calhoun's Guand- 
MOTiiER Near Long Canks Wiieiib 
THE Cheuokees Murdeked Her in 


Lyttelton, humiliated at the failure of his treaty of peace, left 
the Province. Lieutenant Governor William Bull, son of the 
former lieutenant governor of the same name, became governor 
in his stead. Bull asked Virginia and North Carolina for help 
in the war against the Cherokees. 

129. British Troops Come. Seven vessels came to Charles 
Town, bringing 1,200 regular British troops, commanded by 
Colonel Montgomery. In May, part of these troops, together 
with the companies raised among the men of the Province, met 
at the Congarees, marched to Ninety Six and from there to the 
Cherokee towns, killing all the Indians they met and burning 
every Indian camp in their path. The Indians fled to the moun- 
tains from which they gazed upon the ruins of their smoking 
villages. From Fort Prince George, Colonel Montgomery sent 
word to the upper and middle towns of the Cherokees calling 
on -them to make peace. As these towns paid no attention to his 
demand, he marched through the upper towns in what is now 
the State of North Carolina. 

130. Fight Indians in Mountains. At a narrow pass in the 
mountains in North Carolina, the Indians laid in wait for the 
army. A bloody fight followed in which the Indians, hiding 
behind rocks and trees, attacked from all sides. Again and 
again, the Indians were driven off only to return to the battle. 
Finally, though, they gave up and fled. Colonel Montgomery 
was forced to leave the South as he was ordered back to the 
Northern colonies, where his help was needed against the French. 
He returned to Charles Town and sailed to New York. He left 
about four hundred men at the Congarees to protect the ' ' Back 

131. Fort Loudoun Captured. All this time the Cherokees 
were besieging Fort Loudoun on the Little Tennessee River. 
Hearing that Montgomery had left, the soldiers in the fort sur- 
rendered to the Indians who promised that they would be 
allowed to return to their homes. The garrison marched out. 
Next day the Cherokees overtook them and murdered the 


commander and twenty-six soldiers. The remainder of the 
soldiers were made prisoners. 

132. Chief Aids his Friend. Among the prisoners was Cap- 
tain John Stuart, an officer in the South Carolina regiment. 
Little Carpenter was a close friend of Stuart's. When the chief 
heard that the officer was a prisoner, he immediately bought 
him from the Indian who held him captive. Little Carpenter 
then said that he was going on a hunting trip and, taking Stuart 
with him, let his friend escape. This was one more instance of 
the friendly feeling of Little Carpenter for the English. As 
soon as he could do so, Captain Stuart got word to Governor 
Bull that the Indians were planning an attack on Fort Prince 

133. Cherokees Finally Conquered. Governor Bull immed- 
iately sent more men and supplies to Fort Prince George. He 
also appealed again for help to the British forces in the North. 
Once more the British soldiers and the provincial troops met at 
the Congarees. In May, 1761, numbering all told about 2,600 
men, they entered the Cherokee Country. Soon afterwards they 
were attacked with great fierceness by the Indians. Some of 
the Cherokees rushed to close combat with knife and tomahawk, 
while others kept up a hot fire with their guns. At the end of 
three hours of bitter fighting, the Cherokees were driven off. 
They went fighting grimly and firing from every rock and tree 
as they retreated. This victory opened the way into the heart 
of the Cherokee Country. Estatoe, one of their largest towns, 
was burned and fifteen other towns were likewise destroyed. 
The corn fields were laid waste by the troops and the wretched 
Indians driven to the barren mountains on which they could 
get little food. Many of them died from starvation while the 
army marched for thirty days through the heart of their coun- 
try and then returned to Fort Prince George. 

134. Governor Bull Makes Peace. It was not long before 
Little Carpenter with other chiefs of the Cherokee tribe came to 
the fort to beg for peace. They were taken to Charles Town for 


a "talk" with Governor Bull. He met the chiefs at the ferry- 
on the Ashley River and received them with great kindness. A 
fire was kindled and for a long time the Governor and the In- 
dians smoked together in silence. At last Little Carpenter be- 
gan a speech in which he pleaded pitifully for peace for his 
nation. He told Bull that he had come to see what could be done 
for his people who were in great distress, and asked for forgive- 
ness. "We all live in one land — let us live as one people," 
begged Little Carpenter. Governor Bull was satisfied that the 
Cherokees had been punished enough for their crimes and made 
a peace with the chiefs which ended the war. 

135. More Settlers Come to Up-Country. With the Chero- 
kee War at an end, the way was open for more people to settle 
in the beautiful Up-Country of South Carolina. The French 
had been defeated also, removing any danger from them. They 
had agreed to give up all the lands they claimed east of the 
Mississippi River. With danger from the Cherokees and the 
French about gone, the settlers rapidly occupied the rich and 
rolling lands in the Piedmont section. From Pennsylvania and 
Virginia parties of sturdy Scotch Irish emigrated to the Up- 
Country, making the trip overland. French Huguenot and Irish 
settlers, arriving in Charles Town, came up from the coast coun- 
try to the Piedmont and met the tide of Scotch Irish immigrants 
coming down from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Other states 
from which settlers came to the Piedmont section were Maryland, 
Jersey, New York, and even New England. One of the most 
famous settlements made at this time was that of the French 
Huguenots at New Bordeaux, in the present McCormick County. 
Hardy settlers from other colonies and provinces in America 
were attracted to the Up-Country of South Carolina by the 
abundance of game and the richness and beauty of the lands, 
which they could have for the taking. 

136. Governor Boone Offends Gadsden. Thomas Boone 
reached South Carolina in 1761, bringing the king's commis- 
r.ion as governor. He made himself unpopular almost as soon as 


he arrived by objecting to the way in which the members of the 
Commons House had been elected. He ordered a new election 
and, after it was held, made an enemy of Christopher Gadsden 
by refusing to administer to him the oath of office though he had 
been elected a member of the Commons House. Gadsden was 
born in Charles Town, but had been educated in England. 
"We have just told that he marched with Lyttelton against the 
Cherokees. Gadsden was a wealthy merchant and planter, a 
man of spirit who believed in the rule of the people by the people 
and was always ready to fight for what he thought right. Boone 
made a grave mistake when he offended Gadsden, who was a 
powerful man in the Province. The Commons House stood with 
Gadsden against Boone. It refused to vote money to pay the 
salaries of the governor and other officials. Governor Boone was 
allowed to go to England to tell of his troubles and he never 
returned to South Carolina. 



137. Province Thrives. Before studying the events which 
brought on the Revolutionary War, it will be well to tell some- 
thing about South Carolina and its citizens during the years 
just before this great war with England. When Thomas Boone's 
term as governor ended, it had been less than fifty years since 
the Province was placed under the rule of the king. During 
these years South Carolina had grown exceedingly rich and 
had made great progress. lu 1765, there were about 40,000 
white people in South Carolina as well as about twice that num- 
of negro slaves. In other words, the white population of the 
entire Province was a little larger then than the total population 
of the City of Columbia in 1920. 

Charles Town in 1760 When the City Ranked Second to None in 


138. Trade With England. South Carolina was probably 
the richest of the British provinces in America. Its trade was 




of tlie greatest importance to the merchants of England, Not 
only did the Province ship rice, indigo and other products to 
these merchants in great quantities, but it also bought from 
them goods manufactured in England. Many ships and seamen 
were engaged in the trade between England and South Carolina. 
During the year ending in March, 1765, four hundred and 
twenty-four vessels sailed from the ports of the Province. These 
ships carried to England and other markets over 110,000 barrels 
of rice and over half a million pounds of indigo, besides hides, 
furs and other products of the Province. 

139. Charles Town Led Among Cities. Charles Town was 
a rich and flourishing town. Its population was about 10,000, 
of whom about half were white people and the remainder 
negroes. It contained about 1,200 houses, some of them fine 
brick mansions which cost great sums. It took rank second to 
none of the cities in North America. In Charles Town were two 
Episcopal churches (St. Philip's and St. Michael's), two Baptist 
churches, a Lutheran church, a Huguenot church, a Presby- 
terian church and a Congregational church. 

140. Merchants Grow Rich. We have learned that the 
first fortunes made in Carolina by the early colonists came from 

the Indian trade. So, too, 
during the period while the 
Province was governed by the 
king, nearly all of the largest 
fortunes were made by mer- 
chants. Among the wealthy 
merchants of this time were 
Gabriel Manigault and Henry 
Laurens, both of whom were 
Huguenots. Manigault was 
probably the richest man in 
any of the British colonies in 

Former Home of Henry Laurens America. He helped poOr 

Cuaul"s Town. °'' ^^^"^ ^^^ '"^ Huguenot immigrants who 



came to South Carolina. Manigault invested his money in lands 
and in slaves. At his death, he was one of the largest planters 
in the Province as well as a great 
merchant. Later we shall learn 
more of Henry Laurens, and how 
his wisdom aided the United 
States in the Revolutionary War 
and afterward. 

141, Professional Men. 
There were also noted profes- 
sional men in South Carolina 
during these times. Dr. Alexan- 
der Garden was a famous physi- 
cian, known in Europe as well 
as in America for his work in 
botany. John Lining, another 
physician, was one of the early 
experimenters with electricity. 
Lionel Chalmers, a third of the 
famous doctors, wrote an account 
of the weather and diseases in 
South Carolina. Most of the 
lawyers of this time were native 
South Carolinians who went to 
England and there studied their 
profession in London. As the 
business done in South Carolina 
increased and the wealth of the 
country became great, there 
was naturally more need of 
attorneys. Over fifty lawyers 
were admitted to the bar in 
South Carolina during the 

twenty-five years before the Revo- ^^\^- Ro«eu smith, sister or 
" " John Kutledgb, and Heu Little 

lution. Son. 


142. Free Schools. One of the best ways to judge the true 
worth of a people is by the number of churches and schools they 
have. It is interesting to find that less than a century after the 
first English colony arrived as much attention was being paid to 
churches and schools in South Carolina as was the case anywhere 
else in America, the New England States not excepted. Citizens 
of the Province sometimes gave money or property to be used 
in founding and maintaining free schools for the children of 
poor people. One of the most noted of the free schools of the 
Province was founded in 1756 at Georgetown by the Winyah 
Indigo Society. The members of this society were men interested 
in growing the indigo plant. The members' dues were paid in 
indigo, not in money. A large sum was on hand from the sale 
of this indigo. At one of its meetings the Society decided to use 
this money for founding a free school. The school grew and 
later on pay pupils were admitted. For about a hundred years 
after its founding, the Winyah school drew pupils from all over 
the eastern half of South Carolina. It is now a part of the 
public school system of Georgetown. 

143. Pay Schools. Pay schools abounded in South Carolina. 
The parents of children attending these schools paid a fee to the 
schoolmasters. Besides reading, writing, arithmetic, history and 
geography, the pay schools taught Latin, Greek, French and 
other languages, music and dancing. There were also classes in 
fencing for boys and in sewing for girls. 

144. Educated in England. The sons of the wealthier South 
Carolinians were almost always sent to England to complete 
their educations either at famous English schools or colleges. 
We have said that many of the lawyers in South Carolina studied 
their profession in London. 

145. Religious Life. There were twenty Episcopal churches 
in the Province at this time. Under the law these churches were 
supported out of the taxes paid by the people. At Orangeburgh 
there were Lutheran and Episcopal churches and at Abbeville 
Huguenot churches. Presbyterian churches were the centers of 



settlements scattered over the "Back Country." There were 
four Baptist churches in the Low-Country and at least one in 
the Up-Country in 1765. The immigrants to South Carolina 
were usually religious, God-fearing people. The Huguenots 
and others who came to the Province did so because they wanted 
to live where they could worship undisturbed in their own way. 

St. Philip's Church With Its BEAUTiFtTL Steeple and the Huguenot 
Church in Charleston. 

146. Public Library. It is not known how long the first free 
library founded in Charles Town in 1698, was kept open, but in 
1743 the Charles Town Library Society was founded. It exists 
to this day and owns a great collection of books. 

147. Life in Charles Town. The City of Charles Town, 
during this period, was one of the largest and wealthiest cities 
in North America. Its people were gay, hospitable and fond of 
display. Their sons, returning from Europe, brought back cus- 
toms and fashions of the Old World, as well as wasteful habits. 
Clothes and jewels were brought from the cities of Europe and 



sold in Charles Town. Almost every family kept horses and 
carriages. There were concerts, dinners and balls attended by 
companies of people dressed in the latest European fashions. 
Horse racing was a great amusement. Theaters were open in 
which the best actors in America played. Three weekly news- 
papers wxre published in the city. There were good bookstores 
in which the latest books from England could be bought. In the 

Mr. and Mi!S. Ralph Izaud of Charles Town, 
From a portrait painted in the Winter of 1774-5. 

business sections, the city was like a beehive, so busy were its 
citizens with matters of trade. Its wharves were lined with ships, 
and its harbor filled with vessels and boats. 

148. Life on the Low-Country Plantations. The rice and 
indigo planters who lived in the Low-Country had grown 
very rich and owned large tracts of fertile land and many 
slaves. The planters lived as nearly as they could like English 
country gentlemen. At the head of their household servants 
was a butler, usually an old white haired negro who copied his 
master's manners and repeated his sayings. Then there was a 
coachman, a dependable slave, who had charge of the horses and 
stables, and who drove the family coach down the "Path" as 



Drayton Hall in Ciiaulkstox, ISuilt 

BY John Drayton Before 1758, 
Is a good example of the homes of Low- 
Country Planters. 

the road to Charles Town was called. The coachman, riding 
in state on top of the coach and driving four horses with his 
cracking whip, was the hero 
of the small boys of that day. 
The planters, too, had a slave 
who was known as the patroon. 
He was in charge of the boats 
belonging to the plantation. 
As nearly all the great plan- 
tations were on the rivers in 
the Low-Country, boats car- 
ried the rice and indigo to 
market in Charles Town and 
were used by the planters in 
visiting their neighbors: Each 
plantation was a complete 
community. On it were carpenters, blacksmiths, tailors and 
shoemakers. In the fields were scores of slaves who tended the 
rice and indigo. The great house of the owner was filled with 
servants — cooks, maids and seamstresses — over whom the mis- 
tress of the family presided. The rich planters had their town 
houses in Charles Town where they lived with their families and 

servants during the heat of 
summer. The planters, like 
English country gentlemen, 
were great lovers of out- 
door sports. They hunted 
deer, raced horses, fished 
and shot. 

149. Life in the "Back 
Country." While the peo- 
ple of Charles Town and the 
planters of the Low-Coun- 
try lived at ease and enjoyed the wealth they had made from 
trade and their lands and slaves, the settlers in the "Back 
Country" were having a struggle to get a bare living. They 

A Family Coach Like Those Driven 
Down the "Path" to Charles Town. 


underwent all the hardships of a new country, just as the first 
settlers in the Low-Country did. Though the people of Charles 
Town lived in fine homes, the pioneers in the Up-Country had 
only rough log houses. Their clothing was made for wear and 
not for show. Much of the cloth was woven at home from 
yarn spun on spinning wheels by the women of the family. The 
Cherokees had been severely punished, but there was still some 
danger from Indians. It was necessary for the settlers to be 
on guard against them and not to leave their wives and children 
unprotected. It was hard work to clear 
the land of trees and canes, and to plow 
and plant it after it was cleared. As 
the settlers in the "Back Country" 
grew richer, some of them bought slaves 
to do this work for them. There were a 
great many cattle in the "Back Coun- 
try." To add to the settlers' troubles, 

Plow Like Those Used ' n t • ■, 

BY Settlers. gangs ot thicves began to steal these 

cattle, and the settlers' horses. These 
ruffians would also break into houses and murder families. 
There was no court nearer than Charles Town. So, finally, the 
sturdy pioneers of the "Back Country" organized a band of 
rangers whom they called ' ' Regulators. ' ' These rangers hunted 
down the thieves and punished them when caught. The settlers 
shot game for food and for sport. The streams were filled with 
fish of many kinds. The land was rich and, once cleared, made 
good crops of corn and grain. On Sundays, the settlers gathered 
for worship at the churches, many of them riding miles to at- 
tend, taking their dinners with them and remaining nearly all 
day. Houses were sometimes many miles apart and, except for 
the meetings on Sunday and when militia companies assembled 
for drill, it would have been hard for the settlers to know their 
neighbors. The ministers of the Presbyterian churches fre- 
quently acted as schoolmasters. They were men of learning and 
taught such children as they could. But there were no schools 
yet in the "Back Country" like those in the Low-Country. 


150. Rules Injure Carolina's Trade. We have told about 
the Collector of the King's Revenue, an officer sent to Carolina 
during the days of the Proprietors. It was his duty to collect 
taxes for the king on goods shipped to the Province and to see 
that the people did not sell their crops to any countries except 
England and her provinces, as provided by the king's rules. 
These rules hampered the trade of Carolina, but they did not 
injure the colonies in New England, In these Northern states 
the people during the early times were largely engaged in ship- 
building instead of agriculture. 

151. Later Restrictions Hurt New England. About 1700 
the New England ship building industry had grown so flourish- 
ing that England forbade the New Englanders to build any 
more vessels. England selfishly wanted her own shipyards to do 
all the building. New England was also beginning to manufac- 
ture woolen goods and to make hats. This hurt the business of 
the English manufacturers. England, acting selfishly again, for- 
bade the New Englanders to ship woolen cloth or hats abroad 
or even sell them to the colonies in America. The trade restric- 
tion on manufactures was much heavier on New England than 
the shipping restriction on rice and indigo was on South Caro- 
lina. The latter was at least allowed to sell her products to the 
other English colonies as well as to England. This was, however, 
but the beginning of New England's burdens. Every industry 
she established called forth a restricting order from the British 
government. This naturally led to discontent in the northern 
colonies. Under King George II, South Carolina was treated 
as a favorite province. The shipping restriction on rice was 
lifted. South Carolina had no complaint to make now of- the 



British government, as having no ship building and woolen in- 
dustry, she did not feel the restrictions which fell so heavily on 
the northern colonies. 

152. England's Reasons for Restrictions. It must be 
understood that England felt perfectly justified in placing these 
restrictions upon the trade of the provinces. It was her idea 
that the colonies had been planted solely for her benefit. We 
have seen how slavery had been encouraged because it meant 
wealth to the merchants of England. Just as the Lords Pro- 
prietors wanted to make a profit out of Carolina, so England ex- 
pected to be repaid for the money she spent on Carolina and 
other provinces in America. She considered it her right to regu- 
late the industries which the colonies developed, to tell the col- 
onies how and where they could trade to her greatest good. 
England's idea was selfish, of course, but she had been put to 
great expense to protect the colonies and wanted to regain this 
money by regulating their industries and trade. 

153. The First Direct Taxation. The English colonies in 
America never questioned the right of England to place these 
restrictions upon trade, but the fact that they burdened the 
colonies so heavily aroused resentment and discontent. This dis- 
content was deepened by the news that the people were to be 
taxed directly. England proposed that they should pay a small 
tax to defray partly the expense of the troops she had sent to 

help the northern colonies against the 
French and Indians and to help South 
Carolina against the Cherokee Indians. 
The tax law was known as the Stamp 
Act, because it required that all legal 
papers should be written on stamped 
paper which was to be bought at a small 
price from royal agents in each prov- 

154. Colonies Oppose Stamp Act. 

Stamp the British Put rpi i • 1 11 ™ •„ 4. 

ON Paper. ^^^^ colonies were one and all against 


the Stamp Act, It was not that it placed a heavy tax on their 
citizens, but that they denied the right of England to tax them 
when they were not represented in the English Parliament. 
Also they felt that England was being sufficiently repaid for the 
expense she had been put to in planting the colonies and pro- 
tecting them with troops by the enormous trade they gave her. 
The colonies feared that the tax on stamped paper would be 
only the first and that other taxes would be placed on them. 
The Assembly of Massachusetts declared that Massachusetts 
would not be taxed except by its own Assembly and called 
a Congress in New York of citizens of all the provinces to dis- 
cuss the Stamp Act. The General Assembly of South Carolina 
declared that South Carolina would not be taxed without her 
consent, and elected Thomas Lynch, Christopher Gadsden, and 
John Rutledge to represent her in the Congress which was to be 
held in New York in October, 1765, 

155. Stamped Paper Brought to Charles Town. The first 
stamped paper reached Charles Town on the ship Planter's 
Adventure from London. During the night a gallows was built 
in the center of the city and a figure hung upon it. The figure 
represented a man who sold stamped paper. "Liberty and no 
Stamp Act" was writen on the gallows, and to the figure was 
attached a sign which read: "Whosoever shall dare pull down 
these effigies had better have been born with a millstone about 
his neck and cast into the sea." No one attempted to take the 
figure from the gallows. In the days that followed & throng of 
citizens entered several houses in the town in which they thought 
the stamped paper had been stored. The courts were unable 
to transact business as all refused to use stamped paper. Finally, 
the men who were to sell it agreed to hold the paper until word 
could come from England in reply to the protest made by the 

156. At the American Congress. In the Congress which 
was being held in New York at the time that the stamped 
paper reached Charles Town, the three South Carolinians — 



CHnisTOPHEK Gadsden, 

The Charles Town mer- 
chant, whose fiery zeal 
for freedom helped to 
bring on the Revolution. 

Lynch, Gadsden, and Rutledge — took 
prominent part. The Congress sent 
petitions to the British government in 
whicli the colonies' objections to the 
Stamp Act were explained, 

157. Repeal of the Stamp Act. In 
London, William Pitt took the side of 
the colonies and argued for the repeal 
of the Stamp Act. For this service a 
statue was erected in Charles Town, 
which stands there today. In June, 
1766, the Stamp Act was repealed. The 
news was received in Charles Town with 
joy. In their gladness, a celebration 
was held by the people to show their 
loyalty and gratitude to the king. 

158. Montagu Arrives in the Province. In the same month 
the Stamp Act was repealed, Lord Charles Greville Montagu 
arrived in Charles Town as royal governor, taking the place of 
Lieutenant Governor William Bull, who had served since 
Governor Boone left. The citizens received Governor Montagu 
cordially and celebrated his arrival with brilliant entertain- 
ments. But the joy of the people was checked 
when the news soon came that England had 
placed taxes on glass, lead, tea, and painter's 
colors sent to the colonies. 

159, Young South Carolinians Dissatis- 
fied. The high offices in the Province were 
not filled by young South Carolinians. These 
native sons, many of them educated in Eng- 
land., were certainly fitted to hold office. But 
they returned to the Province to find that the 
high places were filled with incompetent men ^ illiam titt. 

The English states- 

sent from England. These men merely held man, "who took 
the offices to get salaries which went with coTonie^s'. 


them. The failure of the king to appoint young South Caro- 
linians to places in the government naturally caused dissatis- 

1 60. The Liberty Tree. In Charles Town there was a great 
oak tree, under which it came to be the habit for men to gather 
and discuss the unjust actions of the mother country. Chris- 
topher Gadsden often spoke to these gatherings. This great 
patriot told them why England was wrong and made them see 
that the mother country in demanding taxes was acting like a 
greedy money lender instead of like a loving and protecting 
mother to the colonies. Under the branches of the oak a pledge 
was made to resist England's actions. As a result of these 
gatherings, a Liberty Party was born in Charles Town. The 
tree was later known as the "Liberty Tree." 



i6i. The Circular Letter of Massachusetts. In 1768, the 
Assembly of Massachusetts sent out a circular letter to the 
legislatures of her sister provinces. The letter protested against 
the taxes laid by England upon certain kinds of goods shipped to 
the provinces. The letter also suggested that the British govern- 
ment be asked to remove these taxes. This letter aroused the 
anger of King George III and his advisers. They told the gover- 
nor of Massachusetts he must dissolve the Assembly. Before 
breaking up, the members of the Assembly voted not to with- 
draw the letter. In South Carolina, this action met with 
approval. The Commons House voted to write the Assembly of 
Massachusetts praising its action. 

162. Quarters for Troops Refused. Some of the British 
troops who had been sent to South Carolina during the Cherokee 
War were still in the Province. More British troops were now 
ordered to Charles Town. Governor IMontague announced this 
news to the General Assembly and asked that quarters be pro- 
vided for these additional troops. The people of South Caro- 
lina, who were already uneasy at the presence of British soldiers 
when there was no need of them, ignored the governor's request. 
On account of ill health, Montagu retired for a leave of absence, 
leaving the question of the quartering of the troops unsettled. 
Lieutenant Governor Bull again took charge of the government. 
The General Assembly reported to Governor Bull that it would 
not agree to support any additional troops in the Province. 

163. Province Still Loyal to King. Some of his advisers 
told King George III that he ougjit to order the chief objectors 
to British actions in America brought to England for trial. 
South Carolina and Virginia resented this threat in a protest 




from their general assemblies. South Carolina, while the taxes 
imposed had not fallen heavily upon her, had been warm- 
hearted in her approval of the protest from Massachusetts, had 
refused to quarter troops, and had promptly resented the threat 
to seize her citizens who had been active in their protests against 
British misrule. She had been very careful, however, to assure 
King George III that South Carolina was still loyal to him. 
No word had as yet been said of separation from Great Britain. 

Map showing the Province of South Carolina at about the end of the 
Royal Period. State boundries are shown as they are today. 

164. Courts in the "Back Country." In 1768, the Province 
was divided, by act of legislature, into seven districts. In these 
districts, courts were to be held at Charles Town, Orangeburgh, 
Camden, Ninety Six, Cheraws, Beaufort, and Georgetown. This 
act also provided for building jails and appointing officers of 
justice throughout South Carolina. This bill met with the 


king's disapproval, but in 1769 finally became law. Court 
houses and jails were built in the districts and by 1772 the people 
were able to obtain justice at their homes instead of going to 
Charles Town. 

165. Non-importation. In 1769-1770, one hundred years 
after the arrival of the first English colony on the banks of the 
Ashley River, there was great excitement under the branches of 
the Liberty Tree over non-importation — the refusal to accept 
goods in Charles Town on which taxes had been placed by 
England. An agreement was made under the Liberty Tree 
which pledged the merchants and mechanics to encourage 
American manufactures and to refuse to receive British goods. 
British cargoes arriving in Charles Town were left to rot in the 
warehouses, the Charles Town merchants not being allowed to 
sell these goods in the market. This was unjust and worked 
great hardship upon persons who had bought these goods from 
English merchants before the non-importation agreement was 
made. The citizens hoped that by refusing to buy goods taxed 
by England the mother country could be made to see that they 
were in earnest. 

166. Non-importation Broken by Northern Colonies. 
Much to the indignation of the South Carolinians, word came 
that New York and Philadelphia had broken the non-importation 
agreement. Feeling that non-importation would be useless if 
continued by South Carolina alone, it was decided to discon- 
tinue it on all goods, except tea. 

167. Parliament Removes Taxes. Despite the breaking 
down of the non-importation scheme, it accomplished something. 
The British Parliament repealed the taxes on glass, lead, and all 
other articles, except tea. The provinces, not to be outdone, 
determined not to use tea. 

168. Montagu Returns. Lord Charles Greville Montagu, 
who had retired to England on account of ill health, returned in 
1771, to resume his office. He was received with much cordiality, 
but from the beginning he was in trouble with the legislature 



He dissolved it because of its determination to control tlie taxes 
of the Province. The people, sustaining their legislature, re- 
turned the same members to the Commons House. Among 
these were Gadsden, Rutledge, Lynch, 
Pinckney, and Manigault, men who were 
prominent in their opposition to the 
taxes. One struggle after another 
occurred between the Commons House 
and the governor, who, finally discour- 
aged, gave up his oi^ce in 1773. For the 
fifth time, Lieutenant Governor Bull 
sat in the governor's chair. 

169. The Blockade of Boston. The 
duty on tea had not been lifted because 
the English government, not willing to 
be beaten by the colonies, wislied to as- 
sert its right to impose taxes upon them. 
In 1773, three shiploads of tea arrived 
in Boston. A party of citizens dressed 
as Indians boarded the ships and threw the chests of tea into the 
sea. The English government, greatly angered, declared the 
port of Boston closed and said troops and warships would be 
sent to prevent all vessels from entering or leaving it. Massa- 
chusetts appealed to the other provinces to sustain her by mak- 
ing another non-importation agreement. South Carolina called 
a meeting in Charles Town of delegates from all parts 
of the Province. At this gathering, after hot debates, the people 
refused to agree to non-importation which Massachusetts asked 
for, because the northern colonists at whose request it had been 
agreed upon before, had been the first to break it. South Caro- 
lina, always generous, gave liberally to the blockaded port of 
Boston. She sent a large sum of money and eighty barrels of 
rice. South Carolina's gifts to Boston were larger than those 
of any other province. 

170. Anxious to Prevent a Break. By this time it was 

John Rdtledge, 
First President of Soutli 
Carolina, wlio played a 
large part in winning 
the independence of the 


beginning to be suspected that the northern provinces wished to 
separate themselves from England. South Carolina, still loyal 
to the mother country, looked with disfavor upon any such plan. 
The Stamp Act had been repealed and as yet the Province had 
suffered no great injury from the taxes. She had merely through 
sympathy with the northern provinces agreed to non-importa- 
tion. With these facts in mind, the delegates, assembled in 
Charles Town, elected five representatives to attend the meeting 
of the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Anxious to pre- 
vent a break with England, the delegates suggested that the 
Congress send some of its members to the mother country to 
lay the case of the colonies before the British government. A 
committee of ninety-nine citizens of South Carolina was ap- 
pointed to look after public affairs. Then the delegates left for 
their homes. 

171. Charles Town "Tea Party." In November, 1774, the 
merchants of Charles Tom'u, with no disguises and in broad 
daylight, in the midst of a great gathering of the citizens of the 
town, threw seven chests of tea which had arrived at the port 
into the Cooper River. In Georgetown the same thing was done. 
The people were determined not to use the tea upon which the 
duty had been placed. 

172. The First Continental Congress. New York had 
issued the call for a Continental Congress. South Carolina had 
sounded the key note for common cause against England in these 
ringing words : ' ' The whole country must be animated with one 
great soul, and all Americans must stand by one another, even 
unto death." The Congress, representing twelve of the prov- 
inces, assembled at Philadelphia in September, 1774. On the 
retirement of Peyton Randolph, its first president, Henry 
Middleton of South Carolina was chosen to succeed him. The 
Congress decided not to import goods from England and not 
to ship to the mother country the products of the provinces. 
Slaves were among the goods the provinces agreed not to im- 

■ port, the southern members raising no objection. Rice, as a 


special favor to South Carolina, was excepted from the list of 
goods which were not to be sold to England. 

173. The Provincial Congress. The committee of ninety- 
nine citizens of South Carolina called a general meeting of the 
inhabitants of the Province. The gathering, which met in 
Charles Town, January 11, 1775, was known as the Provincial 
Congress. Charles Pinckney was chosen president. At the 
Provincial Congress the delegates from the Continental Congress 
reported what that body had done. John Rutledge explained 
that the South Carolina delegates had insisted that rice be ex- 
cepted from the list of articles not to be sold to England, because 
South Carolina sold most of her rice in the mother country, 
while the northern colonies sold their products to other Euro- 
pean countries and would be little affected by agreeing not to 
sell to England. After much debate the meeting approved of 
what had been done by the Continental Congress. 

174. People to Practice Shooting and Pray. Before ending 
its sessions, the Provincial Congress passed a resolution urging 
citizens of South Carolina to practice the use of firearms and 
asking the officers of the militia to drill their men at least once 
in every two weeks. Then the Congress named a day on which 
the people were asked to pray God that He would give King 
George III wisdom to protect their rights and prevent war with 
England. The Provincial Congress had practically taken con- 
trol of the Province. 

175. The Agreement Kept. In South Carolina, the agree- 
ment not to ship any goods to England, except rice, and not to 
use any goods from that country was carefully kept. Ships, 
arriving from England, were emptied of their cargoes, which 
were thrown into the sea. Even a cargo of slaves was sent else- 
where. The private carriage and horses of a citizen were not 
allowed to be landed, because they came from England. 

176. Preparations for War. The news of the battle of 
Lexington in Massachusetts was received in Charles Town in 
May, 1775. The Provincial Congress was at once called to meet 


on tlie first of June. Henry Laurens was made president. At 
this session, the members forbade anyone to ship rice or corn out 
of the Province, because these crops might be needed to buy guns, 
powder and ball abroad. It was decided to raise two regiments 
of infantry of 1,500 men each and a regiment of cavalry rangers 
of 450 men. These were to be enlisted and subjected to the 
discipline of British troops. The Provincial Congress agreed to 
raise an enormous sum in taxes to spend to defend the Province. 
A Council of Safety was elected and given control of all military 
affairs. A secret committee, composed of William Henry Dray- 
ton, Arthur Middleton, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, William 
Gibbes, and Edward Weyman, was appointed and given large 
powers, which the committee immediately used to seize arms 
and powder. 


177. Arrival of Lord William Campbell. In June, 1775, 
Lord William Campbell arrived iu Charles Town on the man- 
of-war Scorpion, with his commission as governor of South 
Carolina. His coming marked the last days of the royal govern- 
ment. The South Carolinians had control of the affairs of the 

178. William Bull. Lord William Campbell took the place 
of Lieutenant Governor William Bull, who had acted as governor 
so often and so well durng the times when there was no royal 
governor in the Province. Bull was born in South Carolina, 
and must have loved the Province, because he served it so faith- 
fully. But he was always true to the king who appointed him, 
just as Robert Johnson had been true to the Proprietors. We 
can imagine how love for South Carolina and loyalty to his king 
must have torn Bull's heart in the days when his friends and 
kinsmen were breaking with the king. Bull soon left his native 
land and went to England where he died a few years later. 

179. Raising of Regiments. The Provincial Congress raised 
the three regiments of troops which had been agreed upon. For 
the two regiments of infantry, Christopher Gadsden and William 
Moultrie were elected colonels ; Isaac Motte and Isaac Huger, 
lieutenant colonels ; Owen Roberts and Alexander Mcintosh, 
majors; and the following captains: Charles Cotesworth 
Pinckney, Barnard Elliott, Francis Marion, William Cattell, 
Peter Horry, Daniel Horry, Adam McDonald, Thomas Lynch, 
Jr., William Scott, John Barnwell, Nicholas Eveleigh, James 
McDonald, Isaac Harleston, Thomas Pinckney, Francis Huger, 
William Mason, Edmund Hyrne, Roger Parker Saunders, 
Charles Motte, and Benjamin Cattell. William Thomson was 




chosen lieutenant colonel, and James Mayson, major of the 
cavalry regiment. Several of the officers of these three regiments 
had gained military experience and honors in the Cherokee 

1 80. Seizing of Powder. General George Washington of 
Virginia had been appointed by the Continental Congress com- 
mander-in-chief of the American armies. Finding that there 
was a great lack of powder in America, an appeal was made to 
the provinces to send him all that could be spared. South 

Carolina learned that a Brit- 
ish ship-of-war was expected 
on the coast with several tons 
of powder for the Indians. 
The secret committee in- 
structed Captains Barnwell 
and Joyner of Beaufort to 
seize the vessel. A schooner 
for them was fitted out by 
the Georgia Congress. A 
force of South Carolinians 
and Georgians put to sea, 
captured the British vessel, 
and took all the ammunition. The cavalry meanwhile under 
Major Mayson seized upon Fort Charlotte on the Savannah 
River where they captured guns, powder, shot, and lead. These 
were stored at the town of Ninety Six and a company was left 
to hold Fort Charlotte. 

181. Many Citizens Loyal to England. South Carolina 
had rushed headlong into the trouble with England without the 
consent of all her citizens. This was shown when the Provincial 
Congress called on all citizens to agree not to ship goods to Eng- 
land and not to use English goods, as provided by the Conti- 
nental Congress. Twenty-two leading citizens refused to agree. 
Most of these citizens were or had been officers of the king. It 
was finally proposed to them to take an oath to be neutral during 

Brick Mansion Built by Miles Brew- 
ton IN Chaules Town. 



the quarrel. Such as refused this oath either left the Province 
or were confined to Charles Town after being disarmed. We 
shall soon see, too, that in the "Back Country" there were many 
more citizens who had no quarrel with the king and were still 
loyal to him. 

182. "Loyalists" and "Patriots." The people in South 
Carolina who saw no cause to quarrel with King George III and 
the English government were called "Loyalists" or "Tories." 
Those other citizens who saw in the acts of the king and his 
advisers danger to their liberty and were prepared to fight if 
necessary were called "Patriots" or later on "Partisans." 

183. Treachery in the Up-Country. Captain Moses Kirk- 
land, who had charge of the powder at Ninety Six, which had 
been captured at Fort Charlotte by Major Mayson, betrayed the 
powder into the hands of Major Robinson, a Scotch Loyalist. 
Kirkland was displeased because he had not been made major 
in Mayson 's place. In a few days Thomas Fletchall, a colonel 
of militia, joined Kirkland, Robinson and others in raising the 
English flag. The Cuningham brothers and Thomas Brown were 
also prominent in this movement for the king. Fletchall soon 
gathered 1,500 men, enough to overawe the country from the 
Broad River to the Savannah River. 

184. Men Sent to Up-Country. The 
Council of Safety sent William Henry 
Drayton, a lawyer and Patriot of Charles 
Town, and the Rev. William Tennent, 
a Presbyterian minister, to the Up- 
Country to explain to the people the 
causes of the quarrel between the king 
and the colonies, and if possible to 
quiet them. Drayton and Tennent 
met with poor success. There was little 
sympathy between the Up-Country and William Henuy Drayton, 

^ -r r^ ■ ■ ^ leader anions the Pa- 

the Low-Country. This was 111 part tnots and First Chief 

T „ J. ji -1 i! J.1 Justice of the State of 

due to the jealousy of the poor, south caroiiua. 


scattered settlements toward the rich, proud city of Charles 
Town. Moreover, the people of the Up-Country, as we have 
seen, came from several different countries. The Up-Country 
felt none of the oppression of the British and saw no real reason 
for rebelling. 

185. Up-Country Apparently Quieted. After talking to the 
people at a meeting on the Enoree River, Drayton and Tennent 
heard that the Loyalists were rising. They called out the militia 
and asked for volunteers. It looked as though bloodshed would 
surely follow, but the Loyalists were not yet ready for open 
fighting and their leaders came to Drayton's camp to sue for 
peace. Drayton next proceeded to pacify the Cherokees to 
whom he made presents. The Cherokees gave their promise 
readily, but British agents had already been to the Cherokees, 
and these promises, like those of the Loyalists, were kept only 
for a short time. 

186. Governor Campbell's Activity. Governor Campbell, 
while powerless in Charles Town where the Provincial Congress 
ruled, had not been idle in the Up-Country. John Stuart, whom 
we heard of when he was captured by the Cherokees after Fort 
Loudoun surrendered, was now Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
for the Southern Provinces of North America. Stuart was very 
loyal to the king. He had a tremendous influence over the 
Indians and made great efforts to arouse the Cherokees along 
the South Carolina border against the Patriots. He had an agent 
named Cameron who lived among the Indians and who took a 
Cherokee squaw as his wife. Cameron built a fine house for her, 
clothed her in finery and presented gifts to her countrymen. In 
this way he obtained a hold over the Cherokees. Governor 
Campbell wrote secretly to Stuart and Cameron and also to the 
Cuninghams, Brown, Kirkland, Fletchall, and other Loyalists 
of the Up-Country. His letters were finally discovered and 
from that time he was closely watched by the Provincial 
Congress. Governor Campbell was thus prevented from causing 
a Loyalist outbreak. 



187. Convening of General Assembly. In July, 1775, the 
General Assembly was convened by Governor Campbell. This, 
it must be remembered, was under the royal authority, the out- 
ward show of which was still maintained. The real power in the 
Province had been taken by the Provincial Congress. No busi- 
ness was done by the Assembly. ]\Iost of the members of the 
Commons House were also members of the Provincial Congress 
or of its Council of Safety or of the committee of ninety-nine. 

188. The Taking of Fort Johnson. The revolutionary 
committees decided to take possession of Fort Johnson. Three 

Great Seal ur tiii: i'Kt.ivixcE of South CAnoLixA \\ iw. .; Loud William 
Campbell Took with Him When He Fled. 

companies of soldiers from the Provincial regiments, led by 
Lieutenant Colonel Motte, seized the fort on September 15, 1775. 
The guns of Fort Johnson were promptly trained upon the 
Cherokee and Tamar, two British armed vessels in Charles 
Town harbor. 

189. Governor Campbell Flees. The next day Governor 
Campbell dissolved the General Assembly and fled to the Tamar. 
He carried with him the great seal of the Province. No laws 
had been passed by the General Asembly during his term of 
office. His influence in the Up-Country had been mischievous, 
but he had not been able to take advantage of it for his king. 


190. A South Carolina Flag. Fort Johnson was soon filled 
with Provincial soldiers and put in fighting order. The troops 
of the garrison needed a flag. So they made one out of blue 
cloth and put a white crescent in the upper, right hand corner. 
This was the first South Carolina flag. 

igi. Fighting in "Back Country." The unrest in the "Back 
Country" was increasing. Major Williamson, in charge of the 
militia of Ninety Six district, had some sharp fighting. A large 
force of militia, under the command of Colonel Richard 
Richardson, was ordered to the scene of the trouble. Richard- 
son's force was increased on the march to 3,000 men. His ap- 
proach scared the Loyalists who began to disband. Several of 
their chief men were made prisoners. Colonel Fletchall was 
found in the hollow of a sycamore tree and others in various 
hiding places. These leaders were all sent to the Charles Town 
jail. A force under Colonel Thomson proceeded against 
Cuningham and easily overcame him. Thus Richardson and 
Thomson put down the Loyalists in the Up-Country, but only 
for the time being, as we shall see. The troops these two 
Patriots commanded suffered greatly from lack of food and from 
a snow storm which lasted three days. Afterwards this little 
campaign in the Up-Country was known as "Snow Camp." 

192. Pardons Offered Loyalists. Anxious to win over the 
Loyalists, or at least to quiet them, the Provincial Congress of- 
fered pardons to all except a few leaders. Many of them ac- 
cepted pardons. Some refused to do so and fled to Florida where 
they awaited a time to return to South Carolina. 

193. Driving British Warships Away. With the Loyalists 
in the Up-Country suppressed, the Patriots undertook to drive 
the British ships of war from Charles Town harbor. These ships 
seized the merchant vessels as they arrived and took the goods 
they carried. The Patriots, in a single night, built a battery on 
Haddrell's Point and mounted some cannon there. A few shots 
from these cannon drove the British warships down to Sul- 
livan's Island. As they were allowed neither food nor water. 


they soon sailed away. To protect the harbor against other 
British ships, the Patriots began to buikl a little fort of sand and 
palmetto logs on Sullivan's Island. 

194. The Province Becomes the State. On February 11, 
1776, a committee of eleven prominent men of the Province was 
appointed by the Provincial Congress to draw up a plan of 
government. News arrived that the British Parliament had 
authorized the capture of American ships and property. This 
act of the English Parliament showed that the mother country 
considered that war had begun. In March, 1776, John Rutledge, 
from the committee to draw up a plan of government, submitted 
a Constitution which was adopted. This Constitution ended the 
rule of England and made the Province an independent State. 

195. Plan of State's Government. Under this Constitution 
the Provincial Congress became the General Assembly of South 
Carolina, with full power from the people to make laws. In- 
stead of a governor, the State's Constitution said there should 
be a President and, instead of a lieutenant governor, a Vice- 
President. The President of the State was also Commander-in- 
Chief of the troops of the State. At the head of the courts, there 
was to be a Chief Justice who had judges to assist him. 

196. First Officers of the State. John Rutledge was elected 
first President and Commander-in-Chief ; Henry Laurens, Vice- 
President; and William Henry Drayton, Chief Justice. These 
three Patriots were the first officers of the State of South 

197. Seven Years of Fighting. Though the State of South 
Carolina had thus set up its own government, seven long years 
were to pass and its soil was to run red with blood before Eng- 
land admitted that her provinces in America were free. In the 
chapters which follow we shall see that South Carolina played 
a glorious part in winning its own freedom and that of the 
twelve other States. The military experience its people gained 
in fighting the Cherokees was a great aid in finally defeating the 
British. The wealth of the planters and merchants of the Low- 


Country enabled the State to buy war materials. The hardy 
settlers of the ''Back Country," fighting fiercely for freedom 
when they were at last aroused, helped change defeat into vic- 
tory. We must turn now to the Revolutionary War and tell of 
the seven years of struggle for liberty. 


198. The British Approach. In May, 1776, President Rut- 
ledge heard that a British fleet commanded by Sir Peter Parker, 
with soldiers aboard under Sir Henry Clinton, was approaching 
Charles Town. The city was greatly excited over the news that 
South Carolina would be the first of the English provinces in 
America to be attacked. General Charles Lee, one of the 
principal officers of the American forces, was sent to take charge. 
President Rutledge ordered out the militia, guns were fired to 
give the alarm, and the fortifications of the city were strength- 
ened. Lead weights were taken from the windows of the houses 
to be cast into musket balls. The public records and the printing 
presses were moved out of the town. 

199. Fort on Sullivan's Island. Sullivan's Island guarded 
the entrance to the harbor of Charles Town. On this island was 
the little fort built of two parallel walls of palmetto logs 
with the space between filled with sand. The rear of the fort and 
the eastern side were unfinished. For that reason General Lee 
wished to withdraw the troops from it to the city, but President 
Rutledge was not willing to abandon the fort. Colonel William 
Moultrie was put in command of it. 

200. Breach Inlet. Sullivan's Island and Long Island (now 
named the Isle of Palms) are separated by an arm of the sea 
called Breach Inlet. It was the plan of the British to land Sir 
Henry Clinton's soldiers on Long Island to cross this inlet and 
attack the fort on Sullivan's Island in the rear while the fleet 
in front would begin firing upon it from the sea. Soon after the 
British ships sailed into Charles Town harbor, Clinton landed 
with 2,220 men and threw up earth works on the Long Island 
side of the inlet. To prevent the British from crossing to 




Sullivan's Island, there were only 780 South Carolinians com- 
manded by Colonel William Thomson. 

201. The Battle, On June 28, 1776, the British fleet opened 
fire on the fort. The ships anchored in two parallel lines and 
began a heavy bombardment. Most of the shells buried them- 
selves in the soft palmetto logs of the fort and did little damage. 

The Battle of Fort Moultrie as Shown by an Old Print. 

The garrison of the fort turned their cannon upon the two larg- 
est of the enemy ships and so heavy was their fire that at one 
time during the day it was thought that the two ships would be 
destroyed. One of these vessels carried both Lord William Camp- 
bell, the royal governor of South Carolina, and Sir Peter Parker. 
Lord William Campbell was wounded and twice the quarter- 
deck was cleared of every person except Sir Peter Parker. 
About mid-day three of the British ships tried to pass the fort 
to attack from the rear. This would have meant defeat, for the 
rear of the fort was unfinished. Fortunately for the Carolinians, 
the ships stuck fast upon a sand bar. 

202. Defending Breach Inlet. As soon as the British fleet 
opened fire. Sir Henry Clinton started to cross Breach Inlet to 
attack the fort by land. He had a number of small boats to 



support his soldiers while crossing. The boats advanced but Col- 
onel Thomson's men protected by trenches opened a fire which 
raked the decks so that the British could not be kept at their 
posts. The boats turned back and along with them the soldiers 
who were wading the inlet. 

203. Sergeant Jasper. During the battle the flag staff of the 
fort was shot away. The flag fell outside the walls. A young 
sergeant named Jasper leaped over the ramparts and rescued 
the flag. Tearing it from the broken staff, he returned with it 
and amidst a storm of shot and shell fixed it again over the fort. 
Standing on the ramparts, he gave three cheers for the flag and 
returned to his gun unhurt. After the battle when President 
Rutledge visited the fort, he took his own sword from his side 
and gave it to Sergeant Jasper for his bravery in rescuing the 

204. Victory. About nine o'clock at night the British ceased 
firing and the fleet retired. The battle had ended in victory for 
South Carolina. This battle, now called the Battle of Fort Moul- 
trie in honor of Colonel Moultrie who was in command of the 
fort, was one of the greatest victories of the Revolution. The 
very fact that the large British fleet had been defeated by un- 
trained men in a little fort built of sand and logs inspired South 
Carolinians and all American Patriots 

with joy and confidence. Many who 
before this battle held back were en- 
couraged to come forward to fight for 
liberty. South Carolinians had by 
themselves fought the battle and won the 
victory. The glory of Fort Moultrie is 
due entirely to the bravery of the 
State's own sons. 

205. Declaration of Independence. 
On the very day that the Battle of Fort 
Moultrie was being fought, the Con- Thomas lynch, jr., 

T->i -1 T 1 1 • T 1 • Signer of thp Declaration 

gress m Philadelphia was debating a of independence. 



Declaration of Independence of England. Edward Rutledge 
(brother of President John Rutledge), Thomas Lynch and his 
son, Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton, and Thomas Hey- 
ward, Jr., were the five South Carolinians at the Congress. So 
many South Carolinians did not want to separate from England 
that these delegates disliked to agree to do it. It was with many 
misgivings that on July 4, 1776, they signed their names to the 
Declaration of Independence. At this time they did not know 
that England had already begun the war against them by firing 
on Fort Moultrie. 

206. Treaty with France. The Congress in Philadelphia 
now made a treaty with France. In this treaty France rec- 
ognized the independence of America and said she would help 
us to gain our freedom from England. 

207. Loyalist and Indian Uprising. On the same day that 
the Battle of Fort IMoultrie was fought, the Indians and Loyalists 
started trouble in the Up-Country of South Carolina. The up- 
rising was met by Colonel Andrew Williamson who was in charge 
of the defense of the Up-Country. Marching through the Indian 
settlements, Williamson destroyed their crops and villages. Five 
hundred of the Cherokee warriors fled to Florida. The Chero- 
kee nation begged for peace. They were compelled by William- 
son to give up large tracts of their land 
which now form the flourishing counties 
of Greenville, Anderson, Oconee and 

208. War in the North. After their 
failure to take Charles Town, the British 
decided to conquer the North flrst and 
then attack the South again. For more 
than two years after the Battle of Fort 
Moultrie, the war was carried on in the 
northern States. During this time 
Arthur Middleton. South Carolina escaped most of the suf- 

Signpr of (ho Decla nation r? • n j_ .^ i i 

of Independence. lermgs 01 war cxccpt thosc causcd by 




A Carolina Wagon. 

the Indians and the Loyalists. Charles Town developed a great 
trade. Because the English warships along the Atlantic coast 
prevented some of our ships from sailing, a large overland trade 
sprang up. More than a thousaiid wagons 
were used in hauling rice and other goods 
from South Carolina to States as far north 
as New Jersey. 

209. Rutledge Resigns. John Rut- 
ledge resigned as president of South Caro- 
lina in 1778. Rawlins Lowndes, who had 
long been prominent, was elected the 
second President of the State. Rutledge gave up his office rather 
than agree to a Constitution for South Carolina adopted in 1778. 
This Constitution declared that England should no longer govern 
the State. Rutledge wanted England tQ right her wrongs to 
South Carolina, but he did not want the State to separate en- 
tirely from England. The Constitution of 1778 also said that 
in place of the Council appointed by the king there should be a 
Senate elected by the people. This new Constitution took away 
from the Church of England (the Episcopal Church) all share 
in the government of South Carolina and all support from the 
tax money. 


210. The British Return to South. In the autumn of 1778, 
two years after the Battle of Fort Moultrie, the British decided 
to carry the war again into the South. They had been unsuc- 
cessful in the North. The British also needed the products of 
the Southern States — rice, indigo and hides — which they had for 
a long time depended upon. South Carolina, with her big crops 
and her trade with the West Indies, had been supplying the 
Northern States with food. "War in the South would put an end 
to this trade. Then, too. General George Washington, com- 
mander of the American forces, would be unable to reach the 
Southern States in time to help them ; for the British ships con- 
trolled the sea and a long time would be required for an army 
to march over the wild, uninhabited country which lay between 
the North and South. The British also thought that there were 
many Loyalists in South Carolina and Georgia who would flock 
to their flag when the great British army was there to protect 

211. Weakness of the State. South Carolina was in a poor 
condition to meet the British. She had supplied 4,080 men to 
fight in the North. These men could not reach her now. Her 
militia was undependable, because the law only required sixty 
days' service a year. The State had in all only about 1,200 men 
to fight the British. Colonel John Laurens, son of Henry 
Laurens, the president of the Continental Congress, and Colonel 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney who were botli serving as aides-de- 
camp to George Washington, hurried to the State when they 
learned of the proposed invasion by the British. Count Pulaski, 
a gallant Pole, came with his small Legion. This was all the 
help which came from the North. 




212. South Carolina on Guard. In December, 1778, the 
British captured Savannah. This opened the way to South Caro- 
lina. The Loyalists poured out of Florida into Georgia waiting 
greedily to follow the British into South Carolina. General 
Benjamin Lincoln was placed in command of the army in South 
Carolina. Military camps were established at Orangeburgh, 
Purrysburgh and Black Swamp. 

213. March to Augusta John Rutledge became first gover- 
nor of the State of South Carolina in 1779, succeeding President 
Rawlins Lowndes. The British, commanded by General Pre- 
vost, still hung upon the borders of the State and General Lin- 
coln in the Spring of 1779 decided to march into Georgia against 
the British instead of waiting for them to come into South Caro- 
lina. He left Colonel Moultrie in 

command to prevent the enemy from 
crossing the Savannah River to move 
against Charles Town. When Lin- 
coln had marched 150 miles up the 
Savannah, the British, under General 
Prevost, crossed the river and pressed 
toward Charles Town. Moultrie tried 
to stop the advance, but was outnum- 
bered four to one in troops. Couriers 
were sent in haste to urge Lincoln's 

214. Preparations for Defense. 
Prevost 's march toward Charles 
Town was marked by all the horrors 
of war. The Indians and Loyalists 
scattered through the country in 
search of houses belonging to wealthy 
families. They sacked, burned and 
robbed. Houses were plundered of ^.^,,^^,^, 

their silver, slaves were carried off Commander of Fort Moultrie 

and women brutally treated. As chir^eT Town! ''"''''''"'■" "* 



soon as they learned of the danger to llieir families, men under 
Moultrie 's command hurried to their homes. Nothing could stop 
them. Before Moultrie reached Charles Town, half of his army 
had deserted him to protect their homes. But Moultrie with the 
remnant of his army hastened on to the city. Governor John 
Rutledge hurried down with 600 men he had gathered at Orange- 
burgh. Lincoln sent 250 in advance of his own march. All 
these troops reached the city before the British and stood at 
arms all night expecting attack. / 

215. Prevost's Retreat. Governor Rutledge knew that his 
small force could not long keep Prevost out of the city, but he 
refused to surrender and prepared for attack. Fortunately, a 
letter from Lincoln telling of his approach fell into Prevost's 
hands and he, fearing to be caught in a trap between the troops 
in the city and those under Lincoln, retreated to the sea islands. 
For the second time Charles Town had escaped. 

216. Sir Henry Clinton Arrives. Sir Henry Clinton, who 
was commander-in-chief of the British forces in America, now 

determined to come and take Charles 
Town himself. In the meantime, Lincoln's 
army had returned to Charles Town and 
been united with the force under Moul- 
trie. Clinton arrived in February, 1780, 
with 13,000 picked troops and a strong 
fleet. He placed his men on the sea islands 
and finally crossed Ashley River to Charles 
Town Neck. The garrison in Charles 
Town consisted of not more than 4,000 
men. At the time of Clinton's arrival his 
ships of war sailed into the harbor of 
Charles Town. 

217. The Siege Begins. On April 12, the British called on 
Charles Town to surrender. This was refused and the attack 
began. The British continued to advance down Charles Town 
Neck until within a week they were within 300 yards of the city. 

Sir Henry Clinton, 
Comma ndor-in-Chief of 
the British Forces, 
who captured Charles 
Town in 1780. 


The Carolinians realized that it was hopeless to continue to 
defend the town. Clinton renewed his former terms of sur- 
render, but was again refused. Though he was now a very old 
man, Gabriel Manigault, the rich Charles Town merchant, came 
one day to the city's defenses leading his fifteen year old nephew. 
The old man offered himself and the boy as soldiers to defend the 
city. Charles Town was by this time on the point of starvation. 
The food on hand was not enough to last a week. There was no 
prospect of reinforcements or supplies. The British ships in the 
harbor as well as the army in the rear of the town united finally 
in one great attack. Shells fell in every quarter, setting fire to 
many houses. The British troops were in speaking distance of 
the defenses of Charles Town and their rifles were never fired 
without finding a mark. The defenders could no longer show 
themselves above the lines with safety, A hat raised on a cane 
was instantly riddled with bullets. Still the city held out. 

218. Surrender. On May 12, the British advanced within 
twenty-five yards of the city. All further defense was hope- 
less and meant useless loss of men. Lincoln was obliged to sur- 
render. For nearly three months, with less than 4,000 ill-fed, 
ill-clad and undisciplined men he had held the city, the lines of 
which required at least three times that number to man them. 
He had withstood 13,000 of the best troops in the British service, 
headed by their greatest generals, and aided by a fleet. 


219. In British Hands. The members of the militia cap- 
tured in Charles Town were allowed to return to their homes on 
parole. The Continental soldiers were held in Charles Town as 
prisoners. The citizens of the city were also regarded as 
prisoners of war. Before the surrender, Governor Rutledge 
escaped from the city by night and made his way to North 
Carolina. About a dozen of the Continental officers and soldiers 
were not captured, this number being absent on sick leave or on 
expeditions into the country at the time of the surrender. The 
cause seemed so hopeless that the militia all over the State now 
surrendered of their own free will. All felt that the war was 
over. The chief city had fallen. The Continental soldiers were 
imprisoned in Charles Town and nearly every one else was under 
parole. The Patriot cause in South Carolina was represented by 
one man, Governor Rutledge, who was in hiding in North Caro- 
lina. Well might Sir Henry Clinton write back to London, "I 
may venture to assert that there are few men in South Carolina 
who are not either our prisoners or in arms with us." 

220. Guarding the State. So certain was Clinton that 
South Carolina was conquered that he returned to New York, 
leaving Lord Cornwallis in command. Cornwallis established 
himself at Camden as it was a central point in the State. At 
the same time he stationed soldiers at Ninety Six, Augusta, 
Beaufort and Savannah and at numerous other posts over the 
State. Charles Town^ of course, was held by Cornwallis under 
military control. The citizens in the neighborhood of the 
British posts hurried to surrender and thus gain the protection 
that had been granted those in Charles Town. 

221. Tarleton's Cruelty. Nearly everyone, as we see, felt 




that the State had been conquered and that the sensible thing to 
do was to take advantage of the protection offered by the British. 
No one intended to make further efforts against tlie enemy. But 
something now occurred which roused the conquered people of 
South Carolina to renew the fight. This was 
the massacre of Buford's men. Colonel Bu- 
ford, who was a Virginia officer, was hurrying 
with 400 men to help Charles Town. While 
on the way he heard of the surrender and 
turned back toward North Carolina. Corn- 
wallis learned of his whereabouts and sent 
Colonel Tarleton after him. Tarleton came 
upon Buford in the Waxhaws district. A 
battle followed in which Buford's men were 
butchered like cattle. Tarleton gave no 
quarter, showed no mercy. Wounded men 
who had fallen were mutilated while still 
alive. The battle was equal to any Indian 
massacre in its awful brutality. " Tarleton 's 
Quarter" became a by- word in South Caro- 
lina. The men of the Up-Country, many of 
whom were lukewarm toward the Patriot cause, were shocked 
and angered by Tarleton 's frightful cruelty. 

222. The British Policy. Soon it seemed to the people of 
South Carolina that " Tarleton 's Quarter" was all they could 
expect from the British even though they had been promised 
protection when they surrendered. In every part of the State 
the British began plundering. The soldiers were allowed to 
commit any crimes they chose. Churches were burned and 
ministers insulted. Slaves were run off and shipped to the West 
Indies. The British commanders openly shared in the plunder. 
Regular stores were opened in which the stolen goods were 

223. Effect of the British Policy. At this point, Lord 
Cornwallis fanned the flames of resentment to fever heat by 

Tarleton, the 
British Com- 

Whosp crnolty 
aroused the men 
of the Up-Country. 



issuing an order that all Carolinians under parole were released 
and must now fight for the king. The brutality of Tarleton had 
impressed itself deeply upon the minds of the people of the Up- 
Country. The entire State was alarmed by the outrageous 
plundering of the British army. But what few South Caro- 
linians could bear was the idea of being forced to join the British 
army and fight against the other American States. The effect 
of the British policy was thus to force South Carolinians into 
making a desperate effort to drive the enemy away. Being re- 
leased from their paroles to the British, many determined to 
fight for their liberty instead of joining with the British against 
their sister States. Governor Rutledge went to Philadelphia to 
beg help from the Congress. New leaders sprang up in every 
corner and gathered little bands of Patriots around them. These 
Patriots were called Partisans. The three greatest of the 
Partisan leaders were Marion, Sumter and Pickens. These 
names should be household words in South Carolina. To the 
Partisans we owe in large part the overthrow of the British in 
South Carolina and the freedom of the United States. 

224. General Marion. P^rancis Marion was born in Berkeley 

County in 1732. He had fought in the 

Cherokee War and had been one of the 

defenders of Fort Moultrie. He was in 

Charles Town when Prevost besieged 

the city, had fought at Savannah and 

was in Charles Town at the time of 

Clinton's siege. He was absent from 

Charles Town on sick leave when the 

city was surrendered, and thus escaped 

capture. As Cornwallis advanced to 

Camden to establish his posts over the 

General Francis Marion, State, Marion went into North Carolina. 

"Tho Swamp Pox," fnmons Marion was small in size but he was 

on^ tiio nriHsirarKi'for hardy and strong. His features were 

whcn^nirsued.*'' ''^'''*^'' ^^crn and he had little to say. He 



trained his men rigidly, but they loved him and were always 
ready to follow him into the thickest of the fight. He had a 
marked gift for strategy and became famous for his surprise 
attacks upon the British. After these attacks he would lose 
himself in the swamps so that the British could not find him. 
Because of this mode of fighting he became known as "The 
Swamp Fox." Marion wore a short red jacket. A silver 
crescent was fastened on his leather cap. His men wore white 
badges on their caps so that they might know each other in 
battle. Marion seldom had more than seventy -five men and 
usually not a third that number. Each of his followers rode his 
own horse and some carried swords made by the village black- 
smiths out of saws from the sawmills. Some, lacking swords, 
carried pitchforks. Some had rifles, but often their powder 
horns were empty. They were all woodsmen. Sometimes the 
forests were alive with their signals — the hoot of the owl or the 
screech of a wildcat — given in warning of the approach of the 

225. General Pickens. Andrew Pickens was a Scotchman 
and came to the Waxhaws district with his parents when a child. 
He had fought along with Marion in the Cherokee War and in 
the early struggles of the Revolution in the Low-Country. He 
surrendered after the fall of Charles Town 

and gave his parole. Soon after doing so, 
the British raided his plantation, carried off 
his horses and destroyed his property, where- 
upon Pickens took up the fight against the 
British although he knew that if ever cap- 
tured he would be hanged. Pickens wore his 
hair in a queue. His pistols glittered with 
silver trimmings and he wore silver spurs 
and a three cornered hat. He was a brave 
gentleman and officer. ^''''''^^^^.t^J'''^^ 

^ 1 ICKENS, 

226. General Sumter. Thomas Sumter Partisan leader dur- 
was born in Virginia, but had come to South tkfn. ^^^^ ^evoiu- 



Carolina as an Indian trader about the time of the Cherokee 
War and later settled on the Santee River as a planter. He had 
been a member of the Provincial Congress and had served with 
Thomson in keeping Clinton from crossing Breach Inlet at the 
Battle of Fort Moultrie. As Tarleton in- 
vaded the Up-Country, he burned Sum- 
ter's house and destroyed his property, 
but Sumter, like Marion, escaped into 
North Carolina. Sumter was a large 
man, over six feet tall and of great 
strength. He seemed to have no sense 
of fear whatsoever and his reckless- 
ness got him into many a tight place 
from which he always escaped in some 
fashion. For his daring bravery, he be- 
came known as "The Gamecock." 
Sumter's followers were the woodsmen 
of the Up-Country. They would be 
strange figures beside our trim khaki- 
clad soldiers for they wore woolen hunting shirts made by the 
women of their families, breeches of deerskin, Indian moccasins 
on their feet and caps of some animal's skin on their heads. 
Sometimes their caps were decorated with the tail of a raccoon. 
They carried any weapons they could find from a pitchfork to 
a hunting knife. Sumter was their idol. He exacted the ut- 
most obedience from them. 

227. The Three Great Partisans. These three, Sumter, 
Marion and Pickens, were the three great Partisans. It fell to 
them to lead the Patriots in driving the British out of the State. 
In the six months following the capture of Charles Town, Gover- 
nor Rutledge made all three of them brigadier generals. Sum- 
ter was put in command of the militia of the entire State. 
Marion was given command of the Lower Brigade and Pickens 
of the Upper Brigade. These were the greatest Partisans, but 
there was scarcely a settlement in the Up-Country which could 

General Thomas Sdmtek, 

"The Gamecock." famed 

for his reckless daring 

in leading the Partisans. 


not boast a gallant Partisan leader under whom the Patriots of 
the neighborhood fought to rid South Carolina of the enemy. 

228. What We Owe the Partisans. The scene of the 
fighting was now in the Peedee and Up-Country. The Partisans 
lingered about the British posts, cutting off supplies, picking off 
small bands of the enemy, and annoying them in every possible 
way. For eighteen months we shall see them steadily, though 
with many discouraging failures, driving the British from their 
posts farther and farther into the Low-Country until by the 
end of 1781, they have them cooped up in Charles Town. It is 
not too much to say that without the Partisan leaders of South 
Carolina the independence of the United States would never 
have been gained. 


229. Ready to Renew Fight. Within six weeks after the 
fall of Cliarles Town, when everyone thought the war over, 
South Carolina was again in arms against the enemy. There 
was no regular army, it is true, and there was no pay or cloth- 
ing or rations. Nor were there any properly commissioned of- 
ficers. But hundreds of brave Patriots had sprung up like the 
dragon's teeth from the soil and Cornwallis is said to have 
remarked that behind every bush was a rebel. The Patriots had 
to supply themselves with whatever weapons they could find. 
Often they made bullets by melting pewter vessels given them 
by housewives. Sometimes they went into battle with less than 
three rounds of powder to a man and frequently half had to 
wait at a distance until they could be supplied with arms from 
their fallen comrades or enemies. 

230. Partisan Leaders Return. Sumter returned from North 
Carolina. The legislature of that State had given him the arms 
and supplies captured in a Loyalist battle. He established a 
camp in Lancaster County and gathered around him the Patriots 
of the neighborhood. He was to be a terror now to the British 
and Loyalists who held the country between the Saluda and the 
Catawba rivers. Marion returned from North Carolina about 
the same time that Sumter did. Hearing of the outrages com- 
mitted by the enemy in the Peedee section, he decided to go 
there where houses had been burned, plantations laid waste 
and many murders committed. He made his camp on Snow 
Island in the big swamp where Lynches River joins the Great 
Peedee River. The island was covered with thick woods and 
canes in which he could hide his men and horses. This camp 
was chosen also because it was near the road over which the 




British sent supplies from Charles Town to their posts in the Up- 
Country. The position would give Marion a good chance to try 
to capture the provision wagons as they passed on the road south 
of his camp. 

231. Twelve Battles. We know of twelve battles which took 
place in July and August, 1780, in which about 500 British and 
Tories were killed or taken prisoners. 
The first of these was in York County 
at Williamson's plantation which was 
held by Captain Huck, a British sol- 
dier noted for the number of planta- 
tions he had ruined and the cruelty of 
his men. Sumter sent a force under 
Colonel Bratton and Captain McClure 
to attack Huck. Not expecting an 
enemy, Huck and his men had stopped 
in a lane. Sumter's men divided into 
two forces and entered the lane from 
both ends. Huck was killed and his 
troops fled. Another fight took place at 
Cedar Springs in Spartanburg County, where the British were 
defeated, another at Rocky Mount in Chester County where 
Sumter fought gallantly, but was unsuccessful and another at 
Hanging Rock in Lancaster County where he totally defeated 
the British. By this time, Sumter had gathered around him 
about 600 men. The last of the twelve engagements was at 
Port's Ferry in Marion County, where Marion surprised and 
defeated a body of British and Tories. These are the only 
twelve engagements recorded, but there was scarcely a thicket 
or swamp in the Peedee section, the Waxhaws or the country 
between the Saluda and the Catawba rivers in which there was 
not a skirmish. 

232. Help From the North. The great news now came 
from the North that the Congress was sending 1,400 soldiers 
under General Gates to help South Carolina. It had been hoped 

Thomas Heyward, Jr., 
Signer of the Declaration 
of Independence. 



that they would arrive in time to save Charles Town, but with 
only the poorest sort of wagon roads through a thinly settled 
country the march had been so slow that they were just now 
arriving. The soldiers of Gates were half fed, badly clothed 
and worn out from the long, hard march. Their coming was 
hailed with great joy by the Partisans who felt that with their 
help they could meet the British army in open battle and drive 
the enemy from the State. 

233. The Battle of Camden. General Gates determined to 
attack Camden where Cornwallis had placed Lord Rawdon in 

The Battle of Camden. 

command. Gates was advised to wait until his men had rested, 
but nothing could stop him, and he marched straight toward 
Camden, halting on August 13 at Clermont. He showed no 
caution in his march and did not think it necessary to find out 
where the enemy was located. Learning of the approach of Gates, 
Cornwallis had left Charles Town with fresh troops and by 
rapid marches had reached Camden. Gates did not know that 
at the very time he was leaving Clermont to attack Camden 
Cornwallis was advancing to meet him with 2,000 soldiers. Gates 
had not given himself a chance to find out anything. The armies 




met at dawii on August 16. The day ended in the utter defeat 
of Gates. His artillery was lost, his cavalry was swallowed up 
in the woods, and about 200 of his wagons were taken by the 
British. The brave Baron DeKalb was killed and Gates fled. 
South Carolina was in worse condition than before he came to 
its aid. 

234. Sumter's Disaster. To make matters more serious, 
Sumter and his men were attacked by Colonel Tarleton at Fish- 
ing Creek. In the battle, the Partisan force was nearly wiped 
out. Tarleton 's attack was so unexpected that not a Carolinian 
was standing to arms. Tarleton threw his men between them and 
their rifles. The slaughter was frightful, the loss in killed and 
wounded being nearly as great as that suffered by Gates at 
Camden. Sumter himself fortunately escaped before Tarleton 
could capture him. 

235. Cornwallis Takes Revenge. As a lesson to South 
Carolina for taking up arms again, Cornwallis hanged numbers 
of the prisoners captured at Camden and elsewhere. Sometimes 
he did not even give them a trial. Many private citizens were 
made prisoners and put on board prison ships in Charles Town 
harbor where most of them died of dreadful diseases without re- 
ceiving medical aid. After the defeat of Gates, Cornwallis took 
sixty of the most prominent citizens of South Carolina and sent 
them to St. Augustine in Florida as prisoners. Among them 
were Christopher Gadsden, the hot-headed Patriot who had done 
so much to bring on the Revolutionary War ; Edward Rutledge, 
a signer of the Declaration of Independence ; and Dr. David 
Ramsay, the beloved physician and historian. 

236. Cornwallis Goes to North Carolina. The British plan, 
as we know, was to fight from the South to the North. Lord 
Cornwallis, feeling certain that after the defeat of Gates and 
Sumter and the lianging and imprisonment of so many patriotic 
South Carolinians he had utterly crushed the State, now 
marched into North Carolina. He took the town of Charlotte 
and made that his headquarters. General Sumter gathered 



Sword Used In 

what men he could and camped as near Charlotte 
as he dared. "The Gamecock's" men crept al- 
most into the camp of Cornwallis and, hiding 
behind shrubs and trees, picked off his sentinels 
with their rifles. 

237. Fights in South Carolina Fighting 
was still going on in a small way in South Caro- 
lina. Marion rescued about 150 prisoners cap- 
tured from Gates at Camden. He took the guns 
from the British guards who were escorting the 
prisoners to Charles Town. Then he armed 
some of the Patriot prisoners and hurried his 
British prisoners into North Carolina. Marion 
then heard that the British were burning and 
destroying property in the Peedee section. So he returned to 
his camp on Snow Island and from there ventured against the 
British, defeating them in small battles at Black Mingo and at 
Tarcote Swamp in Williamsburg County. 

238. Musgrove's Mills. About the time of the crushing de- 
feat of Gates at Camden, Colonel Shelby of North Carolina with 
Colonel Clarke of Georgia, and Colonel Williams of South Caro- 
lina attacked the British post at Musgrove's Mills in what is now 
Laurens County. IThey won a great victory, killing or capturing 
many of the enemy. Right after the battle, the three Patriot 
colonels heard that Gates had been crushed at Camden and that 
Colonel Ferguson was coming in pursuit of them. So they re- 
treated with their prisoners into the mountains of North Caro- 
lina. Some crossed the mountains to Watauga Camp in Tennes- 
see. Colonel Ferguson could not catch them, but he sent a mes- 
senger to say that if the mountaineers did not lay down their 
arms he would go into the mountains, hang their leaders and 
burn their cabins. 

239. Mountaineers Aroused. Ferguson's threat, far from 
searing the Patriots among the mountain men, made them decide 
to gather a force to attack him. Ferguson seems to have had no 


idea of going into the mountains ; for, after lingering awhile 
in North Carolina, he went back into South Carolina and started 
to march slowly to Charlotte, North Carolina, to join the main 
British army under Cornwallis. From the mountains of Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina and what is now Tennessee, small bodies 
of Patriots, mounted on horses, set out in pursuit of Colonel 
Ferguson. These mounted Patriots united in North Carolina 
and rode across into South Carolina. At Cowpens about 910 of 
the Patriots, those with the best horses, were selected to hasten 
after Ferguson who had 1,500 well drilled Loyalists under his 
command, but no regular British soldiers. The British leader 
sent two messages to Cornwallis to ask aid, but neither message 
reached him. After leaving Cowpens, the Patriot leaders made 
Colonel Campbell of Virginia their commander and divided their 
men into four bodies under him, under Colonel Shelby of North 
Carolina, Colonel Sevier of Tennessee and Colonel Cleveland of 
North Carolina. Of Cleveland's men about 100 were South 
Carolinians, natives of Chester and York Counties, who had 
fought under General Sumter and were now commanded by 
Colonel Edward Lacey and Colonel William Hill, two of his 

240. Battle of King's Mountain. On October 7, 1780, Col- 
onel Ferguson's force was found by the Patriots on top of 
King's Mountain, a rocky ridge in York County. Here Ferguson 
had made his camp though his officers had asked him not to do 
so as the top of the mountain was narrow and bare of trees, 
making it hard to defend. The four bodies of Patriots decided 
to surround the steep hill and attack Ferguson from all sides. 
Colonel Campbell carefully explained to the leaders and their 
men how they were to take up their positions, and told any man 
who was frightened to leave the ranks at once before the fight 
began. Carrying out Colonel Campbell's orders, the leaders 
marched at the head of their men to their places. The British 
did not see them until they were within a quarter of a mile of 
King's Mountain. Then the drums beat and Ferguson, with 



his shrill silver whistle, summoned his men to meet the attack. 
The Patriots under Shelby and Campbell began the fight while 
their comrades under Cleveland and Sevier were still hastening 
around the foot of the mountain to reach the places from which 
they were to attack. Campbell 's men had to climb the mountain 
on its steepest side. They suffered greatly while scrambling up 

A Plan of the Battle of King's Mountain, 
At which the Patriots won a great victory over the British. 

the rocky cliffs. Three times the British forces charged as they 
reached the top and three times Campbell's men were forced 
back into the shelter of the trees on the mountain's side. Shel- 
by's men also suffered, but like Campbell's they refused to run. 
Sevier and Cleveland gallantly carried on their half of the 
battle. Steadily the Patriots pressed toward the top of the 
mountain, ringing the British around with their rifles. Some of 
the Patriots fought on foot and some on horseback. Lacey's 
horse was shot under him. A thick cloud of smoke hung over 
the top of the mountain as the Patriots closed in on Ferguson. 
The British commander fought bravely. He was wounded in 



the right hand, but he rode recklessly from place to place en- 
couraging and cheering his men. Above all the firing and the 
shouts of the battle, Ferguson 's silver whistle sounded clear and 
shrill. As the Patriots advanced, a white flag was raised twice 
by the British at different places in token of surrender. Each 
time Colonel Ferguson cut the flag down with his sword, vowing 
that he would never surrender to the despised mountain men. 
At last, even Ferguson saw that the Patriots had won. Riding 
his horse at a gallop and slashing with his sword which he held 
in his left hand, Ferguson tried to escape, and was killed. A 
white flag was raised in the British lines, but some of the 
Patriots would not cease firing until the British threw down 
their guns and asked for mercy. In the battle, the British loss 
was terrible. Thirteen hundred of them were killed, wounded 
or captured. Fifteen hundred guns were among the spoils taken 
"by the Patriots. The loss of the mountain men in killed and 
wounded was very small, due to the protection they had had 
from rocks and trees as they climbed up the sides of the 

241. Cornwallis Returns. Cornwallis 
hurried back into South Carolina as 
soon as he heard of the Battle of King's 
Mountain, because it proved that South 
Carolina was still unconquered. Marion 
had been so active in capturing British 
supply wagons that Cornwallis' first 
act was to send Tarleton after him. Try 
as he would, though, Tarleton could not 
find him, for Marion knew that Tarleton 
had a large force and hid from him. 

242. Sumter Wounded. Tarleton, 

bogged in the swamps, finally said to his 

men "Come and let's go after 'The Game- 
Battlefield on King's i j o -, •^ t • 

. Mountain and monu- cock, lor the devil himself could not 

MENT Erected by the j. i j.i • ^J £ >> o 1 j. ixr • 

. National Government. catch this old tox. So he sent MajOr 


"Weymys after Sumter who was encamped at Fishdam Ford on 
the Chester County side of Broad River. Weymys fell into 
Sumter's hands. In his pocket was found a list of the houses 
he had burned in the Peedee section. At this Tarleton himself 
went after Sumter. He came upon him at Blackstocks in Union 
County, Learning that all of Tarleton 's men had not come up 
with him, Sumter began the fight. The result was victory for 
"The Gamecock," though he received wounds which disabled 
him for a time. This was a great loss to the Partisans. Corn- 
wallis congratulated Tarleton upon disabling Sumter, saying 
that the latter had certainly been his "greatest plague in this 
country. ' ' 

243. Colonel Washington's Victories. Colonel William 
Washington captured in December a British post under Colonel 
Rugeley near Camden. The post was a stockade of logs guarded 
by about 100 men. Washington had no cannon to batter down 
the walls. So he had a pine log hewn to the shape and size of a 
cannon, mounted it on a pair of wagon wheels and brought it 
up in front of the stockade. Rugeley surrendered at the first 
summons and was nearly laughed out of the British army after- 
ward because he let Colonel Washington trick him. Colonel 
Washington won two other victories the same month, one in 
Abbeville County at Hammond's Store and the other in York 
County at Williamson's plantation. 

244. Arrival of General Greene, News came that the Con- 
gress was sending General Nathaniel Greene to take command 
of what was left of Gates' army. Since his defeat at Camden 
Gates had been idle in North Carolina with the remnant of his 
army. No one felt very joyful over Greene's coming for he 
brought no soldiers with him. 

245. What Partisans Did in 1780, The year 1780 was now 
at its close. During the year there had been thirty-four battles 
fought in the State and fighting one day in four. In only eight 
of these battles had there been any Continental troops, while 
the other twenty-six had been fought by the Partisans alone and 


unaided. After each battle the Partisans would return to their 
homes to see after their families, meeting again on some fixed 
day. They had killed, wounded or captured 2,486 of the British 
soldiers and had kept Cornwallis from carrying out his plan of 
conquering the other Southern States and then marching to join 
the British in the North. The British still had 5,000 men, not 
counting Loyalists, stationed at their posts in South Carolina at 
the end of 1780. 


246. The Battle of Cowpens. The first important battle 
in the campaign of 1781 took place at Cowpens in Cherokee 
County when Colonel Daniel Morgan, a Continental officer, was 
attacked by the notorious Colonel Tarleton. Morgan's men were 
on the crest of a sloping field, Down the slope in front stood 
General Andrew Pickens and his riflemen. Just before the battle 
began, Pickens went from man to man giving orders that every 
third man should fire when the British got within fifty yards of 
them while the other two riflemen held back their fire. Pickens 
said that each man must try his best to kill a British officer. At 
sunrise Tarleton advanced, his two cannon opening fire to pro- 
tect his men. Pickens' soldiers hid behind the trees on the slope 
and as the British came near their rifles spoke. The British 
officers were marked by their uniforms and trappings and fell 
fast before the deadly aim of Pickens' men. So many were 
killed that the British line broke. Tarleton rallied some of his 
soldiers. They advanced with fixed bayonets and met Morgan 
at the top of the slope but the force of the attack had been 
broken by Pickens' riflemen, and the Patriots were victorious. 
One third of the British soldiers were lost in this battle. The 
chief part in winning the day was played by Andrew Pickens 
and his men. 

247. Marion at Work. After the battle of Cowpens, Mor- 
gan and Pickens retreated into North Carolina pursued by 
Cornwallis himself. General Greene followed Cornwallis. Sum- 
ter was in North Carolina recovering from his wounds received 
at Blackstocks. So IMarion was now the most important of the 
Partisan fighters left in South Carolina. He was busy as usual. 
From his camp on Snow Island he went out almost every day to 




fight the British. Marion had with him very able and gallant 
officers, such as the two Horrys, the two Postells, James, Conyers 
and McCottry, all of whom became famous for their daring. 
They were at this time especially active in capturing the wagons 
loaded with food going to the British post at Georgetown. Every 
night Marion sent out men to hunt down the British parties, 
Marion himself with a few men attacked a British wagon train 
guarded by three or four hundred men as it passed Halfway 
Swamp in what is now Clarendon County. The British re- 
treated and their heavy baggage fell into Marion's hands. In 
fact, Marion was doing the British so much harm that in March, 
1781, they made a united effort to destroy him and his men. 
The British made it so hot for Marion that he decided to retreat 
into North Carolina. His men did not have enough arms or 
powder. They had little food, sometimes living for days on 
roasted sweet potatoes. Marion heard that General Greene was 
returning from North Carolina with his army so he was filled 
with fresh hope and encouraged to hold out. 

248. Sumter at Work. While Marion was busy in the 
Peedee section, Sumter had recovered from his wounds and re- 
turned to South Carolina. He first attacked the British post 
at Granby just across the Congaree River from the present city 
of Columbia. He had cut off the supplies and subdued the fort 
when Lord Rawdon appeared with a large force on the west 

side of the river and Sumter, 
after destroying the supplies, 
had to retreat, going finally to 
the Waxhaws with the Brit- 
ish at his heels. 

249. Harden Fights in 
Low-Country. With Marion 
in the Peedee was a brave of- 
ficer named William Harden. 
St. David's Church, Historic Build- He was from the Beaufort 

ING IN CHERAW, T • A U 1\1^ ' 

Used as a hospital during the Revolution. district and whcu Marion 



took the Peedee as his field Harden joined him. with a small 
band of Patriots who became famed for their daring. Going 
farther and farther into the Low-Country, Harden worried the 
British in every possible way. He was the first to dare to take 
the field between Savannah and Charles Town ; for this part of 
the State was thought to be entirely in the hands of the enemy. 
In March, 1781, he left Marion and made camp on a little island 
in the Ashepoo River. He had with him not more than seventy- 
five men. Almost daily he succeeded in taking prisoners from 
under the very eyes of the enemy. After the first week's fighting 
his prisoners outnumbered his men. During this week he was in 

Greene's Akmy in Camp in South Carolina. 

four fights and in one captured Fort Balfour at Pocotaligo, a 
British post with 100 men. This daring fighting fairly rivaled 
that of Sumter and Marion. Harden gave the British so much 
trouble that they determined to crush him. Harden was at- 
tacked at Wiggins' Hill. He was so outnumbered that he had 
to retire. The British captured some of his men whom they 
treated with savage brutality. This only served to rouse 
Harden 's band to vengeance. 


250. Greene Returns. Sumter at this time sent Wade 
Hampton, who now joined the Partisans, to North Carolina to 
urge General Greene to come back into South Carolina. Greene 
had met Cornwallis in battle in North Carolina at Guilford Court 
House and had been defeated, but with such loss to Cornwallis 
that Greene felt that victory was with him. Cornwallis had 
marched on to Virginia after the battle of Guilford Court House 
to join the northern British army and Greene wanted to follow 
him. But he at length decided to come back into South Caro- 
lina and sent word ahead to Sumter and Marion to gather all the 
men they could to march with him against the British post at 

251. Fort Watson Falls. Greene returned and camped at 
Hobkirk's Hill near Camden. He ordered Marion and Colonel 
Lee to attack the posts below Camden. These officers decided to 
attack Fort Watson because this post had the stores and am- 
munition lost by Sumter which they needed so much. Their 
soldiers cut logs which they carried on their shoulders to a place 
near the fort. There they built a high log pen in the night. 
The riflemen got on top of this and at dawn the British found 
themselves covered by the American rifles. A shower of bullets 
forced them to surrender. This log pen was the idea of Colonel 
Hezekiah Maliam and was thereafter known as the "Maham 
Tower. ' ' Pushing the Fort Watson prisoners before him, Marion 
hurried to join Greene at Camden. 

252. Greene Defeated at Hobkirk's Hill. The approach 
of Marion brought on the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill. Rawdon de- 
cided to attack Greene before Marion arrived. Greene 's advance 
guard received the attack with coolness and good order. Greene 
put two regiments of soldiers in front of his artillery and, as the 
British advanced, the two lines parted and the enemy was wel- 
comed with a storm of grape shot from Greene's cannon. They 
retired in confusion, and Greene, thinking the battle won, ad- 
vanced against the British. Rawdon then threw out his sup- 
porting columns. The Americans fell into confusion. Greene 



tried to rally liis soldiers but failed and had to retreat. 

253. British Leave Camden. Even though defeated at 
Hobkirk's Hill, Greene was successful in forcing Rawdon out of 
Camden for he cut off the supplies coming from Charles Town 
to Camden and Rawdon had to leave on that account. He 
burned the town before leaving and the Loyalists who had 
gathered there under his protection followed him to Charles 
Town. They built a miserable village of huts for themselves 
which they named Rawdontown. 

254. The Capture of Motte's. In May, 1781, Sumter, 
Marion and Lee all assembled before the British post at Motte's. 

The Motte plantation was on 
the south side of the Con- 
garee River in what is now 
Calhoun County. The de- 
fenses of the British were 
built around the beautiful 
home of Mrs. Rebecca Motte, 
from which the British had 
driven her. The Partisans 
told JMrs. ]\Iotte that the house 
would have to be burned to 
force the British out. She 
consented at once and gave 
them some fire arrows which 
had been given her brother, 
the famous Miles Brewton, by 
a sea captain who had 
brought them from the East 
Indies. These arrows were 
shot from a musket into the 
roof of the house, but failed to set it on fire. At that, Nathan 
Savage, one of the soldiers of Marion's brigade, rolled up a ball 
of pitch and brimstone, lighted it and threw it on the roof, set- 
ting it on fire. As the British soldiers climbed on the roof to 

Mrs. Rebecca Motte Presents the 
Fire Arrows to the Tartisaxs. 


put out the blaze, Marion's riflemen would pick them off one by 
one. Knowing that the large amount of powder stored in the 
house would blow them all up should the fire reach it, the British 
surrendered. As soon as they did, soldiers of both sides climbed 
to the roof and put the fire out. 

255. Fall o£ Granby and Orangeburgh. During the same 
month, May, 1781, Sumter forced the British at Orangeburgh to 
surrender. About a hundred were taken prisoners and large 
stores of much needed food fell into Sumter's hands. He then 
hurried to Granby to besiege that post, but found that it had 
already surrendered to Colonel Lee. 

256. The Fall of Augusta. At this time Pickens was busy 
in the Ninety Six section. Pickens' plan was to keep the sol- 
diers at the British post at Ninety Six from going to the aid of 
the post at Augusta which was to be attacked next. In May, 
General Pickens and Colonel Lee joined Colonel Clarke of 
Georgia to help take Augusta from the British. The British 
had two forts there, both on the Savannah River. The Patriots 
built a tower of logs like the one raised at Fort Watson to over- 
look both forts. Several fights took place and soon the British 

257. British Leave Ninety Six. Sumter tried to persuade 
General Greene to attack Rawdon when he was leaving Camden, 
but this Greene would not do. Instead he marched to Ninety 
Six to capture the British post there. There were about 600 
Tories at Ninety Six under the command of Colonel Cruger. 
Greene began the siege in ]\Iay and kept it up a month without 
success. Then Sumter sent him word that Rawdon was coming 
from Charles Town to the aid of Ninety Six with three fresh 
regiments which had just landed in Charles Town. Upon hear- 
ing this, Greene decided to storm the post before Rawdon came. 
He did this but found that he was losing so many men that he 
called them off and retreated hastily. The next month the 
British left this post, and the Tories there made their way to the 
wretched settlement their brother Tories called Rawdontown, 


It was learned later that the British were about to abandon 
Ninety Six when Greene attacked. So he would have done well 
to have taken Sumter's advice and attacked Rawdon instead of 
wasting his time on Ninety Six. 

258. British Leave Georgetown. While Greene was busy 
at Ninety Six, Marion marched upon Georgetown. But the night 
before the British had left Georgetown and sailed for Charles 
Town. Marion marched in and destroyed their defenses. 

259. British Hold on State Weakened. The spring and 
early summer of 1781 had brought success to the daring Parti- 
sans. They had captured, or forced the British to leave, the 
posts at Fort Watson, Camden, Motte's, Granby, Orangeburgh, 
Augusta, Ninety Six and Georgetown. Thanks to the fearless- 
ness of the Partisans, the British hold on South Carolina, which 
once seemed too strong to break, was growing weaker and 



260. The Raid of the Dog Days. In midsummer of 1781, 
Sumter and Marion with the two Hamptons, Horry, Maham, 
Harden and many other gallant Partisan officers raided the 
Low-Country with the idea of making one great effort to drive 

all the British into Charles 
Town. Colonel Wade Hamp- 
ton charged a British force 
within five miles of Charles 
Town and, appearing before 
the defenses of the city, 
caused great terror. Think- 
ing that the entire American 
army was on the way, alarm 
guns were fired and all the 
British in the city gathered 
under arms. Hampton captured fifty prisoners and fled before 
the British could catch him. He also burned four vessels laden 
with valuable stores for the British army. Lee captured a large 
quantity of provisions, and chased the British force from their 
post in Dorchester. Sumter attacked unsuccessfully the British 
at Bigin Church. The British defeated Sumter's advance guard, 
then burned the church 'and their stores and retreated toward 
Charles Town. Lee, Hampton, Marion, Maham and others 
pursued, coming up with the British at Quenby Bridge. The 
fight there lasted until dark when the Partisans withdrew fear- 
ing British reinforcements. This fight ended "the raid of the 
dog days, ' ' which had nearly succeeded in cooping the British in 
Charles Town. 

261. Capture and Death of Hayne. In July, 1781, Colonel 


Battle of Quenby Bridge. 


Isaac Hayne, who had before this time kept out of the fighting 
because of having given his word to the British, now broke his 
parole and joined Harden. One night he went with a party 
into the very lines of Charles Town to capture General Andrew 
Williamson who had also given his parole and was living under 
British protection in Charles Town. Hayne and his band seized 
Williamson while in bed and carried him off to their camp. 
Whereupon the British at once made a surprise attack on the 
camp and, capturing Williamson and Hayne, carried them back 
to Charles Town. Hayne was thrown into the common prison 
in the basement of the Exchange. He was one of many who 
had given parole and then fought against the British. Colonel 
Balfour, in command of Charles Town, decided to make an ex- 
ample of Hayne to stop others from following in his footsteps. 
After appearing before a court called to inquire into his case, 
Hayne was notified that he was to be hanged. The citizens of 
Charles Town asked mercy for him. The women begged in 
person for his life. But Balfour and Lord Rawdon would not 
listen. Hundreds were present at the execution. Hayne walked 
to the gallows in a firm, manly way saying as he went that he 
would show them "how an American should die." He parted 
with his children and a few friends at the gallows, and died a 
martyr to freedom. The entire State was shocked at the execu- 
tion. The Partisans swore vengeance and General Greene noti- 
fied Colonel Balfour that he would retaliate by hanging any 
British subjects who fell into his hands. 

262. George Washington in Virginia. About the middle 
of August, 1781, General George Washington led his army, rein- 
forced by 3,200 French soldiers, into Virginia to attack Corn- 
wallis, wiio had marched there after the battle with Greene in 
North Carolina at Guilford Court House. Upon getting this 
news, General Greene made every possible effort to keep any 
British forces in South Carolina from reaching Cornwallis to 
help him. 

263. Battle of Eutaw Springs. Greene's first move was to 


attack the British under Colonel Stewart at Eutaw Springs in 
Orangeburg County. The battle took place in September, 1781, 
and was a complete surprise to the British. Stewart, fearing 
nothing, had sent out an unarmed party of 100 men to dig sweet 
potatoes. The potato-diggers were captured, and the British re- 
treated with Greene's army at their heels. But, when the 
Americans, hungry and half-clothed, came to the British tents 
and saw food, clothing and drink scattered about the camp, they 
fell into confusion, left their officers and wildly ran about 
gathering up what they wanted. They found quantities of 
whiskey and began to drink to excess. At this, the British, who 
had fled to the shelter of a brick house near the springs, fired 
from the windows of the house. In vain did Greene try to rally 
his men. They were entirely unmanageable. Seeing this, he 
collected his wounded and retreated. Next day Stewart hastily 
fell back, leaving his dead unburied and his wounded to the 
mercy of the Americans. Both sides claimed the victory. 
Stewart's hasty retreat showed that the power of the British in 
South Carolina was indeed weakening. 

264. Surrender at Yorktown Aided by Partisans. About 
the end of October, 1781, the great news reached South Carolina 
that Cornwallis had surrendered to General George Washington 
at Yorktown in Virginia on October 17. This gave the South 
Carolinians fresh courage to drive the British down to the sea. 
At the beginning of the year 1781, the British had had almost 
the entire State in their hands and at the end of that year they 
were cooped up in Charles Town and kept in the country right 
around the city. The gallant fighting of the Partisans had de- 
layed Cornwallis so long in his march to the North and had so 
cut up his army that General Washington was able to meet and 
defeat him in Virginia. Thus the fighting of the Patriots in 
South Carolina aided George Washington to capture the British 
army in Virginia. 

265. Tories at Work. The surrender of Cornwallis at York- 
town had really ended the Revolutionary War, but there was 



still more blood to be shed in South Carolina. The Tories went 
on one last dreadful series of raids. "Bloody Bill" Cuningham 
and his band camped in the swamps of the Edisto River from 
where they spread in all directions, burning, destroying, murder- 
ing as they went. To add to this, the Cherokees arose and, fall- 
ing on Gowen's Fort in Greenville County, massacred the 
Patriot families gathered there for safety. Pickens went after 
the Cherokees. In what is now Oconee County, he burned thir- 
teen Indian villages and captured and killed many Indians. 
Marion was busy putting down the Tories in the Peedee section. 
In some sections, truces were made between the Tories and the 
Patriots for the purpose of raising crops which they all needed 
so badly. Near the present town of Salley the Tories were de- 
feated by Captain William Butler of 
Edgefield who also gallantly aided in 
ending the raids of "Bloody Bill" 

266. Governor Rutledge Con- 
venes Legislature. Governor Rut- 
ledge now returned to South Caro- 
lina and called a meeting of the Gen- 
eral Assembly to be held at the little 
village of Jacksonborough about 
thirty-five miles from Charles Town. 
The members of the General Assembly 
were men who had won the liberty 
of the State. In it were Sumter, 
Marion, Pickens, the two Horrys, 
Harden and many of their brave sol- 
diers. John Laurens was present, 
also his father Henry Laurens, just 
released from the Tower of London. 
General William Moultrie, who had jjenrt lauu^s, 

been a prisoner in Charles Town since One of the most proniinent 

, T ^, . , T ^ -, citizens of Ilevolutionary 

its surrender, and Christopher Gads- times. 



den, who had been imprisoned in St. Augustine, were also mem- 
bers. John Mathews, wlio had done good work for South Caro- 
lina in the Congress at Philadelphia, was elected governor to 
succeed Rutledge whose term was out. The office of governor 
was offered to that fine old Patriot, Christopher Gadsden, but 
he refused it on account of age and ill health. By act of the 
legislature the property of the Loyalists was confiscated as a 
means of getting money for the immediate use of the State. 
Among other acts was one making a large gift of money to Gen- 
eral Greene for his services. 

267. British in Charles Town. The British, cooped in 
Charles Town, were beginning to need food. Ships had not been 
sent to carry them back to England, but South Carolina knew 
that if the British could be kept from getting food from the 
country they would be forced to leave. 

268. Death of John Laurens. 
Many small fights took place to prevent 
the British from getting food. In one 
of these John Laurens was killed. This 
was a severe loss to the State, for 
Laurens was one of her greatest men. 
In his death South Carolina lost a gal- 
lant patriot and an able statesman. 
Laurens had been chosen by George 
Washington to arrange the surrender at 
Yorktown. He had served on Wash- 
ington's staff in the North. He had 
gone as special minister to France where 
he got a loan from the French king 
which enabled the Americans to keep 
up the fight. Lastly he had fought in the defense of his own 
State and at the moment of victory had lost his life. 

269. British Leave South Carolina. Ships finally came to 
take the British away from Charles Town. The British com- 
mander made arrangements with Greene to do the city no injury 

Colonel John Lauukns, 

Who was killed in a skirm- 
ish with a British forag- 
ing party after the State 
had won its freedom. 



if Greene would agree not to attack as they left. ' ' It was a grand 
and pleasing sight," General Moultrie wrote afterward "to see 
the enemy's fleet, upwards of three hundred sail, lying at anchor 
from Fort Johnson to Five Fathom Hole, in a curve line, as the 

Patriots Enter Charles Town After British Leave. 

current runs ; and what made it more agreeable they were ready 
to depart. ' ' On Saturday, December 14, 1782, the British sailed 
away and Charles Town was free. The Patriots entered as they 
left. First came the army, then Governor Mathews with a large 
escort. The governor's council and long lines of officers followed 
on horseback. The smiling faces and joyful voices of the citizens 
who had been imprisoned there since the fall of the city greeted 
the deliverers as they marched in. The balconies and the win- 
dows were crowded with the aged men, the women and the 
children who, for nearly three years, had mourned the absence 


of sons, brothers, friends. All their sufferings of the war were 
now forgotten in the triumph of victory bravely won. The War 
of the Revolution was over and South Carolina was a free State, 
thanks to the bravery of its own sons, the Partisans, who in the 
face of defeat, fought and won many battles for liberty. 



270. South Carolina a Free State. South Carolina had 
won her freedom. "Left mainly to her own resources," says 
Bancroft, the great historian, "it was through the depths of 
wretchedness that her sons were to bring her back to her place 
in the republic, after suffering more and daring more and 
achieving more than the men of any other State." A treaty was 
signed at Paris whereby Great Britain acknowledged "the 
United States of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and 
Georgia to be free, sovereign, and independent States." The 
boundaries were Florida on the south, Canada on the north, the 
Mississippi River on the west and the Atlantic Ocean on the 
east. South Carolina, instead of belonging to England, was now 
one of thirteen separate, independent States. 

271. Patriots Lead in Peace. The first regular meeting of 
the General Assembly of South Carolina after the Revolution- 
ary War took place in January, 1783. It elected Benjamin 
Guerard governor of the State. Guerard was a Patriot who had 
been held by the British on a prison ship after they took Charles 
Town. Henry Laurens, John Rutledge, Ralph Izard, Jacob Read 
and Thomas Sumter were elected to represent South Carolina at 
the Continental Congress at Philadelphia. In the j^ears follow- 
ing the Revolution, we shall see that almost all the Patriot 
leaders held State offices or represented South Carolina in Con- 
gress. Fortunately for the State, these men proved as wise 
leaders in peace as they had been brave in war. Probably there 
has never been a more critical time in the life of South Carolina 




than that through which the State went in what we might call 
its babyhood right after the Revolution when it was a separate, 
independent State. It had to disband its soldiers and to decide 
what to do with the Loyalists among its citizens. As a rule, the 
Loyalists were treated with great kindness, considering the 
trouble they had given the Patriots. Those Patriots who had 
been left in poverty by the war had to be helped. A law was 
passed allowing them to pay their debts on easy terms. The 
houses burned and plantations ruined by the British and Tories 
had to be rebuilt and repaired. The people, encouraged by their 
leaders, went to work w^ith a will. The Revolution had halted 
plans to build colleges in South Carolina. But just after the 
war ended, the leaders of the State, knowing the importance of 
education, provided for colleges at Charles Town, Winnsboro and 
Ninety Six. To care for the children left fatherless by the war, 
orphanages were opened at Charles Town, Ninety Six and 
Camden. Led by the Patriots who had done so much to win 
the war. South Carolina thus helped herself to get back into the 
paths of peace and progress. 

272. Columbia Made State Capital. William Moultrie, the 
hero of Fort Moultrie and defender of Charles Town, became 
governor in 1785, after Guerard. Two years 
later Thomas Pinckney was elected and his 
cousin, Charles Pinckney, followed him in 1789. 
While Moultrie was governor the General As- 
sembly voted to make Columbia the State's 
capital instead of Charles Town, the name of 
which the Assembly changed to Charleston. 
Columbia was selected because it was in the 
center of the State, easy for the people of both 
the Low-Country and Up-Country to reach. 
After the General Assembly decided on this 
change, streets were laid out and a State house 
built. A few years later the State records were 
moved to Columbia and the General Assembly 

X Mftkodist '•'t. 
O Acadi'iu^ 

Plan of Columbia 
showinj; also 
the old town 
of Granby. 


held its meetings at the new capital instead of at Charles- 

273. Disadvantages of the Free State, State pride might 
have kept South Carolina forever a free and sovereign State, 
but for certain serious drawbacks which began to be felt about 
1787. The treaty of Paris had recognized the separate inde- 
pendence of the thirteen States. They each had to face the ques- 
tion whether they should remain separate or join their fortunes. 
The drawbacks to remaining separate were these : 

First — The Continental Congress owed a huge war debt 
which it had no way of paying, because the States were afraid 
to give it the power to tax them to raise money. 

Second — There were many quarrels between the States over 
the western lands into which settlers were moving. When sev- 
eral States claimed the same lands, there was no one to settle 
the quarrel. The Congress at Philadelphia had only the power 
to advise. The States were afraid that if they gave Congress 
real power it would become another tyrant like England. 

Third — European countries would not trade with the States, 
because they did not know whether they were dealing with one 
nation or thirteen. 

Fourth — Congress had no power or money to keep up an 
army or navy and therefore there was no force on land or sea 
to protect the country from foreign enemies. 

274. Calling a Constitutional Convention. To the people 
of all the States, the Congress seemed almost a foreign govern- 
ment. They were afraid to give it the power to raise money by 
taxation, to settle quarrels between the States, to organize an 
army and build a navy and to deal with foreign countries. A 
closer union between the States might never have been formed, 
but for the clear necessity for it that the people finally began to 
see. The quarrels between the States grew worse and worse. 
The advice of Congress was disregarded by the States. There 
were riots among the soldiers in the North, because they had not 
been paid for fighting. Congress had no money. So it made 



paper money which was so worthless that it took ten dollars of 
it to buy a pound of sugar. Along with all this trouble at home, 
barbarous North Africans began to prey upon American ships 
and Spain was making trouble on the Mississippi for the Ameri- 
cans who traded along that great river. In this desperate 
condition of affairs, Virginia called a convention of all the 
States to discuss matters. Only five States sent representatives 
so a second meeting was called for the spring of 1787 at Phila- 

275. Forming the Constitution. To this convention South 
Carolina sent five delegates: John Rutledge, Henry Laurens, 

Charles Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth 
Pinckney, and Pierce Butler. The 
meeting was held in May in the same 
building where the Declaration of In- 
dependence had been signed. There 
was not a man present who had not dis- 
tinguished himself in some way in 
winning the liberty of the States. 
George Washington was chosen presi- 
dent and the convention set to work. 
After four months the convention 
settled upon a plan of government to 
be presented to the thirteen States for 
approval. This plan was called the 
Constitution. Several delegates had of- 
fered plans of government, but it was 
afterwards found that the plan of Charles Pinckney of South 
Carolina entered more largely into the Constitution than any 

276. The Constitution. The Constitution provided for a 
chief executive who was to be known as the President of the 
United States, for a Congress of two bodies — a Senate and a 
House of Representatives — and for a Supreme Court. Each 
State was to elect two senators and the number of representatives 

Charles Tinckney, 
Who took a proniiiipnt part 
in writing the United 
States Constitution and 
served four times as 
Governor of South Caro- 


each State should have in the House was to be based on 
the population of the State. The slave trade was to be abolished 
after 1808. The Congress was to have power to tax the people of 
the States and was to regulate trade. 

277. South Carolina Agrees to Constitution. Opinion in 
South Carolina was divided over the Constitution. There was 
a strong state pride in South Carolina which was jealous of any 
outside control. In general, the men of the Up-Country were 
opposed to ratifying or agreeing to the Constitution for they 
feared a strong, central power. The Low-Country citizens were 
in favor of the Constitution. In the late spring of 1788, the 
party in favor of the Constitution won the fight and South Caro- 
lina ratified the Constitution which gave us the government of 
the United States of America in the same form it is today. South 
Carolina had, after twelve years of independence, entered of her 
own free will a union of her sister States. A State convention 
was called to form a new State Constitution which would fit the 
needs of the State as a member of the Union. Hereafter we shall 
find the history of South Carolina bound up in that of the 
United States. 

278. At the First National Congress. George Washington 
was elected first President of the United States. Among those 
representatives who went to the first Congress of the United 
States were General Thomas Sumter and Pierce Butler of South 
Carolina. This was perhaps the most important Congress ever 
held in this country, as upon it largely depended the strength of 
the Union. One of the most important laws made by the first 
Congress was that putting a tax on foreign imports (goods 
brought in from other countries). Pierce Butler of South Caro- 
lina fought this law bitterly, because it meant that as South 
Carolina's chief industry was farming she would have to buy 
most of her goods, paying a higher price on account of the tax. 
The law favored New England in which manufacturing, and not 
farming, was the great industry. It is important to remember 
that in the very first Congress, South Carolina protested against 



this tax, or tariff as it was called, for we shall find as we go on 
that this was the very thing which started the trouble between 
the North and the South in years to come. 

279. President Washington's Visit. In May, 1791, Presi- 
dent Washington arrived in Charleston on a visit to the State. 
A twelve oared barge aboard which were the President's cousin, 
Colonel William Washington of Revolutionary fame, Edward 
Rutledge, General Moultrie and General Pinckney, met Wash- 
ington at Mount Pleasant and brought him to the city. Wash- 
ington was welcomed upon landing by Governor Charles 
Pinckney, Intendent VanderHorst, the wardens and citizens of 
Charleston. The streets were decorated with arches abloom 
with flowers and laurel. After a week of gay parties and balls 
in honor of "the Father of his Country," Washington continued 
his tour of the Southern States. He visited Camden and Colum- 
bia, the new capital, before leaving South Carolina. 

280. Thomas Pinckney Minister to England. The year 
following this visit President Washington appointed Thomas 
Pinckney minister to England, This was a very hard post to 
fill as naturally England was still resentful over losing her 
American colonies. Pinckney filled the place with dignity and 

was afterward appointed special min- 
ister to Spain and then to France. Thus 
he held three of the highest positions 
within the power of the president to 

281. John Rutledge Honored. 
John Rutledge, the noble statesman and 
Patriot, was made an associate justice 
of the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Then, after the resignation of 
Thomas riNCKNET, j^^^ j President Washington ap- 

Governor of South Caro- . *'/ , „ . . 

lina, Minister to England pointed him cllicf JUStlCC of this COUrt, 
and Special Minister to i • i ^ • t • i j^ • .^ i i 

Franco and 8pain. the highest judicial office in the land. 



282. Birth of "King Cotton." The cotton gin, invented in 
1793, during General William Moultrie's second term as gov- 
ernor, profoundly changed conditions in South Carolina and 
other slates in the South. A little cotton had been grown in 
South Carolina for many years. The seed were taken out of the 
lint with the fingers, slow and tedious work. Cotton was planted 
only in small patches and not in great fields, though it is the most 
useful of all materials for making cloth. In some families, there 
was a rule that the children must take the seed from enough 
cotton to fill their shoes before they went to bed at night. The 
farmers began to plant big fields of cotton after they found that 
the gin would quickly pick the seed from the lint. 

283. Legislature Acts. The leaders in South Carolina rea- 
lized how important was the discovery of a machine which 
would take the seed out of lint cotton. In 1801 the legislature 
agreed to pay fifty thousand dollars to Eli Whitney and his 
partner, Miller, for the right to have cotton gins, which Whitney 
is said to have invented in 1793, made and used in South Caro- 
lina. The legislature then laid a small tax on the users of gins 
to repay the State the large sum of money given to Whitney and 

284. Growing of Cotton Increases. At the time of the in- 
vention of the gin, rice and indigo were the great crops out of 
which the planters in South Carolina made money. The grow- 
ing of cotton spread to every part of the State, after the gin 
was invented. Rice could be grown profitably only in the great 
fresh water marshes of the Low-Country. Indigo also grew best 
along the coast. Cotton would grow anywhere in South Carolina 




on well drained land, except in the mountains in the north- 
western part of the State. As cotton sold for a good price, 
farmers all over the State planted their best lands in cotton. 
They worked the crops of cotton with slaves, just as they did 
their indigo and rice. As the years went by, slaves were in even 
greater demand and brought higher prices on account of the 
money they made for their masters in growing cotton. You 
have read that the settlers in the Up-Country usually raised 
cattle. As they got their lands cleared they planted crops, among 
them cotton. Some of the settlers in the Up-Country, too poor 
to do so at first, bought slaves when they made money. With 
these negroes they planted more land because farming, espe- 
cially the raising of cotton, was more profitable for them with 
slave labor than tending herds of cattle. 

285. What the Invention of the Cotton Gin Did. As the 
years went by, cotton became the one great crop in South Caro- 
lina. It was found that rice could be grown more cheaply else- 
where. The chemists learned how to make indigo dye out of 
chemicals instead of out of the plant. The money from growing 
cotton and the fact that it would thrive in the Up-Country made 
the citizens of the Piedmont eager to own slaves. The price of 

slaves increased. Both the 
Up-Country and the Low- 
Country profited greatly from 
raising cotton. Farmers de- 
pended on cotton almost en- 
tirely, and have continued 
to do so until very recent 
times. With the money they 
got the cotton planters who 
owned slaves bought great 
tracts of land. This made 
South Carolina a State in 
which there were many large 
An Early Cotton Gin, farms and but few Small ones, 


286. Making Cotton Cloth. The manufacturing of cloth 
from cotton in the State developed hand in hand with the in- 
crease in the amount of cotton raised in South Carolina. At 
first all the cloth was manufactured on the plantations by the 
negro slaves who had been taught to spin and weave or by the 
wives and daughters of the household. It is quite probable, 
though not certain, that the first cotton factory in the United 
States was in South Carolina, instead of in Massachusetts as is 
generally supposed. Nineteen years before a mill was built in 
Massachusetts we find in The SSouth Carolina Gazette a letter 
telling of making cotton cloth in St. David's parish in the 
Peedee section. There is no doubt that a good deal of cotton 
cloth was made in the State on various plantations before the 
Revolution. In 1777 Daniel Heyward, the father of Thomas 
Ileyward, Jr., whom we remember as a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, wrote his son that if he could only get a cer- 
tain kind of machine "there is not the least doubt but that we 
could make 6,000 yards of good cloth in the year from the time 
we began." It is possible that in 1787 a regular cotton mill was 
in operation on James Island near Charleston. As we have said, 
the manufacturing of cotton goods did not amount to much until 
the Whitney cotton gin was invented in 1793. The industry 
took on new life with this invention. In 1808, the House of 
Representatives of the General Assembly said that all of its 
members must appear during the session dressed in homespun 
suits. The South Carolina Homespun Company of Charleston 
was started in 1808 and the cornerstone of its factory was laid 
the same year. A few years later citizens of Greenville district 
asked the legislature to lend them money to build a mill which 
would spin enough yarn to weave 250 yards of cloth a day. 

287. First Cotton Mills In Up-Country. About 1816, 
New England settlers came to the Up-Country and started 
small mills which were the forerunners of the scores of mills in 
the same section today containing many thousand spindles. 
Among these pioneer cotton mamifacturers in the Piedmont were 


William Bates, George and Leonard Hill, John Weaver, John 
Clark and several others. In 1816 or 1817 the Hill factory in 
Spartanburg County contained 700 spindles. The Hill factory 
was on Enoree River. Bates, Weaver and others built another 
mill near the Hill factory. These two mills were the first in the 
Up-Country. Several more were built in the next few years. 
The first mill in what is now Greenville County was built in 
1833 by William Bates on Rocky Creek. It is still in operation. 
All the machinery for the cotton mills in the upper part of 
South Carolina had to be hauled in wagons from Charleston. 
This was a tremendous undertaking. Also as cotton mills were 
new and untried ventures, it required courage on the part of 
men to put their money into them. 

288. Condition of the Slaves. As we shall hear much a 
little later on about the evils of slavery, it should be said now 
that the slave owners in South Carolina, as a rule, treated their 
negroes with the greatest kindness, fed them well and clothed 
them comfortably. A negro slave cost money and a slave owner 
would no more have thought of mistreating a slave and making 
him unfit to work than he would have thought of abusing a fine 
horse. On the plantations the negroes lived in little houses near 
the "big house" of their masters. When they were ill they were 
cared for. As they were not worked too hard, they led a care 
free life because their masters provided for all their needs. 
Besides the slaves who worked the crops in the fields, other 
slaves were trained as servants and used about the houses of 
their owners. There were some exceptions to the rule that slave 
owners were kind to their slaves and some instances of harsh- 
ness and too much whipping. Usually overseers, hired by the 
slave owners to watch the work of the negroes, were the ones at 
fault. In many instances, the slaves loved their masters and 
mistresses and were devoted to them even after all the negroes 
were freed. In South Carolina there were a few men wlio owned 
hundreds of slaves and a great many men who owned scores of 


289. Wealth of the Slave Owners. Slave holders in South 
Carolina, especially those in the Low-Country, were frequently 
very wealthy men. They had, of course, none of the conveni- 
ences which even the poorest people enjoy today, such as elec- 
tric lights, telephones and railroads. They had, however, many 
luxuries which very few people have today. In the first place 
they had numbers of slaves to wait on them as servants. In the 
second place, many of them spent a good deal of time in Europe 
and, in the third place, they led lives of leisure. The slave 
owners usually lived in great houses built of brick or black 
cypress and surrounded by lovely gardens filled with rare plants 
and flowers. Broad halls ran the length of the houses and large 
rooms with high ceilings opened into the halls. On the floors 
were thick, costly carpets and the windows were hung with 
silk and lace curtains, brought from England or France. Much 
of the furniture in these houses also came from abroad. It was 
made of rosewood, walnut or mahogany. There were all kinds 
of carved sofas, graceful chairs and curious tables, sometimes in- 
laid with mother of pearl, copper or light colored woods. The 
walls were hung with oil paintings and mirrors. The dining 
rooms were furnished very beautifully because it was the custom 
of the day to give elaborate dinners to large parties of guests. 
The sideboards were loaded with silver plate and sometimes with 
gold. Wonderful winding staircases led from the lower hall to 
the upper floors where the bedrooms were. These rooms were 
richly furnished, the big beds with their four posts being 
covered with silken hangings. Some of the houses contained' 
large ball rooms which were usually on the third floor. These 
great houses were common in Charleston and along the rivers 
in the Low-Country, the places in the State which had been 
settled first. There were very, very few of them in the Up- 
Country, though as cotton was grown there and the wealth of the 
Up-Country increased many slave owners in that part of the 
State began to live in luxury like their fellow slave owners in 
the Low-Country. 


290. Growth of the Up-Country. As has been pointed out 
in a previous chapter, the rich and beautiful Up-Country was 
not settled until many years after the Low-Country. It was 
a long time before there was anything like the amount of wealth 
in the Up-Country that there was in the Low-Country. The 
first settlers had to rely on themselves and they developed a 
hardy, independent spirit. What they needed they made or 
raised at home, buying only a few things such as gunpowder. 
They had few of the luxuries enjoyed by the rich people of 
the Low-Country. Their clothes were woven at home and often 
the furniture in their houses was hewn by hand from the trees 
in the forests. Their houses were built of logs, the cracks be- 
tween the logs being filled with clay. Their dishes were of 
pewter or wood and they sat on benches instead of chairs. In 
time they prospered just as the people of the Low-Country 
had after undergoing in years past the hardships all pioneers 
must endure. 

291. Building Roads. The first settlements in the Low-; 
Country, as has been said, were along the rivers which were^, 
deep enough for boats to sail on. As the number of people in 
the State grew and as the Up-Country, with its swift, shallow 
rivers developed, the need for roads began to be felt keenly. 
The Revolutionary War did a great deal to show the citizens of 
the State that rivers could no longer be used as the only roads. 
It is true that a few rough wagon roads had been opened up 
before the Revolution. In fact, laws were passed as early as 
1682 requiring all citizens, no matter how rich, to work the roads 
and keep them fit to travel. Despite this, what few short roads 
there were, were very rough and hard to travel. During the 
Revolution, citizens from the Peedee section traveled across 
country to fight in the Piedmont and men of the Piedmont went 
in the same way to fight in the Peedee. These hasty journey- 
ings, usually on horseback, back and forth across the State, 
showed that roads were absolutely necessary. After the Revolu- 
tion the people of South Carolina began work to improve their 



highways. Old roads were put in repair, new ones laid out, 
bridges built and ferries improved, 

292. Santee Canal. Another plan to make trading and 
travel more rapid and convenient in South Carolina was the 
building of the Santee Canal. This was 
started during the first term of Gover- 
nor William Moultrie. The building 
of the canal, which was twenty-two 
miles long and connected the Santee 
River with the Cooper River, was con- 
tinued from 1786 to 1800. In 1800 the 
canal was opened. For many years, 
boats loaded with goods from the Up- 
Country passed through the canal down 
the Cooper River to Charleston. It is 
interesting to note that John and Ed- 
ward Rutledge, General Thomas Sumter 
and General Francis Marion were 
among the men who were responsible 
for building the Santee Canal. 

293. Population of State in 1800, 
showed that South Carolina contained 196,255 white people and 
144,336 negroes, nearly all of the latter being slaves. The State 
had steadily increased in population as well as made progress 
in other directions during the administrations of Arnoldus 
VanderHorst, who succeeded General Moultrie as governor in 
1794 ; under Charles Pinckney, who was governor for the third 
time in 1796 ; and under Edward Rutledge, who was elected 
governor in 1798, Rutledge died while governor and John Dray- 
ton filled his unexpired term. Then, in 1800, John Drayton 
was elected governor for a full term of two years. 

294. South Carolina College Founded, While Drayton was 
governor, the legislature voted to establish the South Carolina 
College at Columbia, the new capital of the State. The wise 
leaders of that day knew that the education of its young people 

Edwaud Rutledge, 
Signer of the Declaration 
of Independence and 
Governor of Soutli Caro- 

The census of 1800 


at home was the best thing for the State. They thought also 
that a college in the center of the State where young men from 
all parts of South Carolina could easily go would increase "the 
good order and the harmony of the whole community." So in 
1801 the General Assembly voted fifty thousand dollars to erect 
a building for South Carolina College and six thousand dollars 
to pay its professors. 

295. Vaccination Against Smallpox. Dr. David Ramsay, 
the great physician, introduced vaccination against smallpox 
into South Carolina. This happened while James B. Richard- 
son was governor, from 1802 to 1804. Smallpox had been for 
centuries a dreaded disease, sweeping whole cities and countries 
in great plagues. Vaccination prevented people from taking 
the disease or, if they took it, it was very mild. Llany people 
in South Carolina opposed vaccination at first, but before very 
long nearly all of them knew its power to prevent the terrible 
disease. Dr. Ramsay did a great service to the State in intro- 
ducing vaccination. 

296. The State Prospers. Paul Hamilton succeeded Rich- 
ardson as governor in 1804. When Hamilton became governor 
the State was so prosperous that it had money loaned out to 
the amount of $734,735. Rapidly the State was growing rich 
along with its people. 

297. The Right to Vote. In 1806 Charles Pinckney was 
chosen governor of South Carolina for the fourth time. During 
this term of Pinckney 's suffrage was extended to all white men 
in the State, Before this time only those white men who owned 
a certain amount of property were allowed to vote in the elec- 
tions, but now all white men could vote, no matter how poor they 
might be in worldly goods. 

298. Free School System. We have read that a hundred 
years before this time there were free schools in South Carolina. 
But therc^ was no regular system of free schools until 1811 when 
Henry ]\Iiddleton was governor. Middleton had succeeded John 
Drayton, who had been re-elected governor for a second time in 



1808. The system of free schools established during Governor 
Middleton's term was intended only for those children of the 
State whose parents were too poor to send them to the private 
pay schools or to hire tutors to teach them. Our ancestors 
thought that it was the duty of every man who had money 
enough to do so to educate his children at his own expense. Now 
we feel that it is the first duty of the State to offer free to every 
child an education in a public school, and all the children of the 
State, rich and poor alike, enjoy the benefits of our great system 
of public schools which had its real beginning in 1811. 

299. The Episcopal Church. From the time the first Eng- 
lish colony came in 1670 until 1778, when South Carolina 
adopted its second Constitu- 
tion, the Episcopal church 
was supported out of the 
taxes paid by all the people. 
Its rectors were paid by the 
State and its churches built 
by the State. This was unfair 
to the people of South Caro- 
lina who were not connected 
with the Episcopal Church. 
On account of being sup- 
ported at public expense, the 
Episcopal church got the best 

start in South Carolina. Its ministers came from England. 
During the Revolutionary War, several Episcopal church build- 
ings were destroyed. At the end of the war, with no money 
from the State, the Episcopal church found it could not rebuild 
those churches ruined by the British. Ministers from England 
stopped coming and there were not enough in South Carolina to 
fill Episcopal pulpits. The Episcopal church has only begun in 
recent years in South Carolina to recover from the blow dealt 
by the Revolution and the withdrawal of the State's financial 
support in 1778. 

An Episcopal Church, 
In the Low-Country 



A Presbyterian Church, 
In the Up-Country. 

300. The Presbyterian Church. Although the Episcopal 
church was supported by the public, there were more Presby- 
terians than Episcopalians in South Carolina during the years 
just before and just after the Revolution. Presbyterians were 
t"he first to push into the Up-Country and build churches there. 
After the Revolution the number of Presbyterians decreased. 

This church would have none 
except highly educated men 
for its ministers. Not enough 
of them were to be found and 
some Presbyterians, lacking 
pastors, turned to other 
churches. The colleges eager- 
ly sought Presbyterian min- 
isters as professors, because 
they were educated and able 
to teach the youth of the land many branches of learning. 

301. The Baptist Church. Though there were Baptists in 
South Carolina as early as 1683, there were very few of them, 
and they could not agree among themselves. In 1751 the Charles 
Town Baptist Association was formed by four churches and 
four years later the Baptists had a church in the Up-Country. 
This denomination made no great gains in numbers until after 
the Revolution. Just before 1800, there was a great revival and 
the Baptists added tremendously to the membership of their 

302. The Methodist Church. The first Methodist church in 
South Carolina was organized in Charleston in 1785. Like the 
Baptists, the Methodists supplied their own ministers, not de- 
pending on England for them as the Episcopal church did in 
the early times and not requiring highly educated men as the 
Presbyterians did. Methodist preachers went into districts in 
the State where there were no members of their denomination 
and secured many converts. The church grew rapidly. 



303. More Trouble With England. Stung by her defeat in 
the Revolutionary War, England took every opportunity to act 
spitefully toward the United States. She showed a lack of 
respect to the ambassadors the United States sent to the English 
court. Worse still, England would stop American vessels on the 
seas and search for English sailors on them. A second war 
seemed so certain that the Congress increased the size of the 
army and navy. However, England made a treaty with the 
United States, agreeing to cease her high-handed acts. 

304. Disagreement With France. At the same time, the 
United States and France had a disagreement. The French 
had overthrown their king. The other kings in Europe, fearing 
the spread of democracy, grew alarmed and made war on France 
to help restore the monarchy. The French naturally expected 
that the United States would help them 
as they had aided us in the Revolution. 
The United States was too weak to help 
any other nation and refused aid to the 
French. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 
of South Carolina, sent as minister to 
France, was rejected by the French, be- 
cause the United States would not help 
them. Upon this, the United States sent 
three envoys to France, Pinckney being 
one of the three. The French insulted 
these envoys by telling them that in 
order to be received they must bribe the 
government officers with a huge sum of 


Charles Cotesworth 


South Carolina Soldier, Pa- 

ti'iot and Statesman. 


money. To this proposal, Pinckney replied: "No! No! Not a 
sixpence." Matters nearly came to the point of war between the 
United States and France, but France smoothed things over. 
She had her hands full with England and did not want war 
with the United States. 

305. War With England Declared, Despite the treaty, 
England kept on searching United States ships and seizing 
sailors on them. When Congress met in 1811, the great question 
before it was how to settle the trouble with England. John C. 
Calhoun, Langdon Cheves, David Rogerson Williams and 
William Lowndes were among the members South Carolina sent 
to the Congress of 1812. They were hot with indignation against 
England and thought war the only way out of the trouble. 
John C. Calhoun wrote the bill declaring war. 

306. Preparations for War. South Carolina furnished her 
full share of men for the national army. Many of these soldiers 
were sons and grandsons of Revolutionary heroes and some of 
them were Revolutionary heroes themselves. They were present 
wherever the enemy threatened — in Canada, in Louisiana, in 
Florida and elsewhere. Thomas Pinckney, former governor of 
South Carolina, was made major general of the Southern de- 
partment. Wade Hampton, the Revolutionary Partisan, was 
appointed brigadier general. Under the leadership of Governor 
Joseph Alston of Georgetown, South Carolina prepared for in- 
vasion. Those places on the coast where the enemy might land 
were made ready for defense and manned with troops. 

307. Capture of the Dominica. As the greater part of the 
war was carried on at the western border of the United States 
and on the seas, it affected South Carolina but little except by 
stopping her foreign trade. Charleston sent out a number of 
private armed vessels which did great harm to England's com- 
merce. There were several lively fights off the Carolina coast. 
One of the most interesting of these was the capture of the 
British ship Dominica in August, 1813, by the Decatur, a private 
armed vessel of Charleston, commanded by Captain Diron. 


Captain Diron 's crew boarded the Dominica and, guns becoming 
useless at such close range, the men fought with cutlasses. The 
captain and chief officers of the Dominica were killed, the decks 
were covered with dead and wounded and the British colors 
finally torn down. 

308. British Land On Carolina Coast. The British landed 
a few times on the Carolina coast, once on Dewees's Island just 
north of Charleston. They burned some small vessels lying there 
and plundered several of the seashore plantations. They were 
also on Capers 's and other islands near Charleston and carried 
off cattle and food. They landed in force on Hilton Head near 
Beaufort and plundered the countryside there. These places 
were all unprotected. 

309. War of 1812 Ends. In 1814 the War of 1812 came to 
a close in victory for the Americans. The chief effect of the con- 
flict on South Carolina was that the discussions in Congress over 
declaring war and how to gain the victory brought to the front 
among American statesmen three great South Carolinians — 
Calhoun, William Lowndes and Cheves. 

310. John Caldwell Calhoun. The great South Carolina 
statesman, John Caldwell Calhoun, came into prominence during 
the session of Congress which declared war on England in 1812. 
Calhoun was born in 1782 in Abbeville County. We have read 
about the massacre of some of his ancestors at Long Canes by 
the Cherokee Indians. While a boy, Calhoun studied at 
"Willington," a famous school taught by Dr. Moses Waddell, 
a Presbyterian minister. The young Calhoun went to Yale 
College and was graduated with distinction. He studied law in 
Connecticut and in Charleston, returning to Abbeville in 1807 
to practice when he was twenty-five years old. Twice he was 
elected to the State legislature and then in 1811, as we have 
said, he was sent to Congress. The Congress quickly realized 
his great ability. He was made a member of an important com- 
mittee and soon became its chairman. During his early years in 
Congress, Calhoun worked for the good of the whole nation. He 



wanted to see the States bound together by roads and canals. 
After three terms in Congress, he was made Secretary of War. 
In this office, he re-organized the United States Military Academy 
at West Point and started it on the way to become the greatest 
military school in the world. He was elected vice-president of 
the United States and served eight years. We shall tell a little 
later of his long fight for the rights of South Carolina to which 
he gave all his great powers of mind and depth of soul. Calhoun 
was tall and rather slender. His great mass of hair was black 
and his eyes blue. His manners were charming, and he drew 
men to him by his courtesy and kindness which won their hearts. 
The citizens of his native State loved and respected him. No 
statesman has ever excelled Calhoun in influence and broad 
leadership in South Carolina. 

311. William Lowndes. William Lowndes was sent to Con- 
gress in 1811, with his friend Calhoun. Lowndes was born in 
Colleton district in 1782, the year of Calhoun's birth. William 
Lowndes was the son of Rawlins Lowndes, the second president 
of the State of South Carolina. William went to England to 
school when he was seven years old. His health failed while in 
England, and he was brought back to South Carolina. He 
studied law, like Calhoun, but also 
planted rice. When he went to Con- 
gress, Lowndes worked for the building 
of a larger navy and to strengthen the 
army. He was offered high offices, but 
refused them, believing that he could 
be of more use to the country as a mem- 
ber of Congress. South Carolina named 
both Calhoun and Lowndes as suitable 
men for president of the United States. 
Lowndes' brilliant life ended in 1822. 
William Lowndes, He died while on a voyage to Europe 

Who was pducatpd in and was buried at sea. Lowndes was 

Enffland and served the 

State well in Congress. Very tall and thiu, liis body showing his 



feeble health. He had a wonderful mind and when he spoke in 
Congress he got most careful attention. Clay, the great Ken- 
tuckian, said Lowndes was the brightest man he ever met. 
Though he had resigned from Congress before leaving for 
Europe, the lawmakers wore mourning for the lamented 

312. Langdon Cheves. A third 
great South Carolinian in the Congress 
of 1811 was Langdon Cheves. He was 
the son of a Scotch trader and was born 
in Abbeville County in 1776. Cheves' 
father was not a wealthy man. Lang- 
don Cheves had a much harder time in 
his youth than either Calhoun or 
Lowndes. Cheves must be given credit 
and honor for making himself one of 
the great men of South Carolina. He 
clerked in a store in Charleston when he 
was a boy to make money to help his 
family. He began to read law when he 
was eighteen years old. Three years 

later he began to practice law and in ten years he made him- 
self by hard work the leading lawyer in Charleston. He was 
sent to Congress in 1811 with Lowndes and Calhoun. In three 
years he was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
the highest position in Congress. After two years as a judge 
in South Carolina, Cheves was elected in 1819 president of the 
Bank of the United States in Philadelphia. This bank had been 
so poorly managed that it was about to go to ruin. Cheves saved 
it and made it a success, rendering a great service to his country. 
Cheves was tall and strong. His face was striking and firm. 
He was an orator of ability. He made himself what he was 
without the backing of wealth or influential family. 

313. State Builds Roads and Canals. Passing unhurt, ex- 
cept for the loss of a little trade, through the War of 1812, South 

Langdon Cheves, 

Speaker of the House of 
Representatives ami Pres- 
ident of tlie Bank of the 
United States. 



Boat Similar to Those Used on South 
Carolina Rivers. 

Carolina undertook to 
make the State a better one 
in which to live. During 
the terms of David Roger- 
son Williams, Andrew 
Pickens, John Geddes and 
Thomas Bennett who 
served in the order named 
as governors of South Carolina, the legislature voted great sums 
of money which were spent on roads and canals in the effort to 
make it easier to move the cotton crops to market. We have read 
of the building of the Santee Canal to join the Santee and 
Cooper rivers. Other canals were cut around the rocky rapids 
in the Congaree, Broad, Saluda and Wateree rivers. These 
canals carried the narrow, shallow boats loaded with cotton 
safely around the rapids. For riding over some of the roads 
built by the State, the people had to pay a small sum of money. 
A charge was also made for taking boats through the canals. At 
one time it was possible to load a shallow boat with cotton within 
twenty-five miles of the Blue Ridge Mountains and send it down 
the streams and througli the canals to market in Charleston with- 
out unloading it. The increased size of the cotton crop was the 
chief reason for improving roads and waterways. Rice was 
grown in the Low-Country along rivers which were usually deep 
enough for large boats. Indigo, too, was a Low-Country crop, 
easily sent to market by water. But the bulk of the cotton crop, 
planted all over the State after the Whitney gin was invented, 
had to be carried to the sea for shipment abroad as so little of it 
was made into cloth in South Carolina. Bales of cotton in that 
day weighed about 300 pounds. The easiest way to get them 
to Charleston, the great port and cotton market, was to haul the 
bales over the roads to the nearest large stream, load them on 
a flat boat and send the boat through the canals and down the 
rivers. This accounts for the legislature's willingness to vote 
money in large sums for roads and canals. 



314. Visit of Lafayette. The Marquis 
de Lafayette, the gallant Frenchman 
who helped the United States win the 
Revolutionary War, arrived in South 
Carolina in 1825 on his tour of the United 
States. Lafayette had landed at North 
Island in Georgetown County, nearly 
fifty years before when he arrived to 
offer his sword in the cause of freedom. 
So he was welcomed very warmly to 
South Carolina when he came on his visit. 
He stopped at Cheraw, Camden, Colum- 
bia and Charleston and was received with balls, celebrations and 
military parades. While in Camden, Lafayette laid the corner- 
stone of the monument to the brave Baron De Kalb, who died 
for freedom in the Battle of Camden. People from all parts of 
the State flocked to see Lafayette and to do him honor. 

Marquis db Lafayette. 


315. National Trouble Threatened. John Lyde Wilson, a 
leading lawyer of Georgetown; Richard Irvine Manning, a 
planter of Sumter and the son of a brave Revolutionary cap- 
tain ; John Taylor, a planter of Richland ; and Stephen D. Miller 
of Sumter were the next four governors of South Carolina. 
During their terms, interest in the State's affairs was clouded 
by interest in national affairs. In 1828, during Governor Miller's 
term, the Congress passed a bill placing a high tax, called a 
tariff, on goods brought to the United States from foreign coun- 
tries. This meant that South Carolina and other Southern 
States, raising rice, cotton and indigo and buying great quanti- 
ties of goods abroad, would have to pay more for them. It also 
meant that the Northern States, which manufactured goods, 
were protected against foreign manufacturers by the tax and 
could sell at a higher price. Twice the legislature of South 
Carolina passed resolutions against the high tariff, declaring 
it unjust to the State and the South. Thus, the North caused 
national trouble by favoring its citizens at the expense of the 

316. Difficulties of Union. It was only to be expected that 
troubles would arise among the various States. The country 
was very large. A trip from New York to Charleston by carriage 
or stage coach over rough roads and through almost unbroken 
forests was a dangerous journey of weeks. The same trip by 

water in a sailing vessel was also slow. 
News of the acts of Congress could 
not reach the States until long after 
they had been passed and become 
Stage Coach. laws. Being in such poor touch with 



one another, it is not surprising that the States were not bound 
very closely together. The chief interest of each State naturally 
lay in the management of its own affairs. 

317, Tariff Causes Trouble. The first trouble grew out of 
the tariff question. The very first Congress had laid a tariff or 
tax on foreign goods for the purpose of raising money. This 
tariff was very favorable to the New England States as it pro- 
tected their manufacturers. But it was very hard on South 
Carolina as this State made nearly all its money by farming 
and was therefore dependent upon Europe for manufactured 
goods which the tariff raised in price. As the Northern mem- 
bers of Congress increased the tariff, the Southern members, led 
by Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina in the Senate and George 
McDuffie in the House, protested and fought for the rights of 
the South in almost every session of Congress. 

318. The Question of Slavery. A more serious problem 
than that of the high tariff was developing all the time. This 
was the question of slavery which was to draw the great line of 
difference between the North and the South. Up until about 
1800 slaves were owned in all of the thirteen States. But on 
account of the cold climate of the Northern States the negroes 
did not thrive and slavery was practically abolished in the 
North. From earliest days New Englanders made fortunes from 
buying African prisoners, bringing them over in ships and sell- 
ing them in the Southern Colonies. In the South the climate 
suited the negroes and because this section was altogether agri- 
cultural the slaves were much needed. They cultivated the rice 
and indigo fields and, after the cotton gin was invented and 
great fields of cotton were planted, the South felt that it could 
not do without the negro slaves. It must be understood that it 
was the custom of the day to hold slaves. Slavery was intro- 
duced into every English settlement in America. English mer- 
chants had sent thousands of slaves into Carolina so that the 
Province could raise more rice and indigo to sell to them. Even 
when England did away with slavery at home, she would not 



consent to abolishing the slave trade in her colonies. There is no 
doubt that holding human beings in slavery was a great wrong 
even though it civilized the savage negroes who were brought 
over from Africa; but it was nevertheless the custom of man 
from the earliest days to hold slaves. 

South Carolina College About the Year 1850. 

319. Admission of New States. The treaty with England 
after the Revolutionary War had said that all the land as far 
west as the Mississippi River belonged to the United States. 
Into this western territory settlers from the thirteen original 
States had poured. Whenever any one section had enough set- 
tlers it applied to Congress to be admitted into the Union as a 
new State. When people in the slave-holding States went into 
this new territory and settled there, they carried their slaves 
with them. It was only natural that when they applied to enter 
the Union as a new State they expected to hold their slaves. 
The people who went from the Northern States into the new 
territory did not have slaves and when they asked to enter the 
Union they wanted to do so as a "free" State, that is to say 
a State in which people were not allowed to own slaves. We 
can readily see how disputes would come up on the question 
of slavery when a new State asked to be taken into the 

320. Slavery in the Louisiana Purchase. It grew to be the 


case that owning slaves and not owning them marked such a real 
difference between the sections that the admission of a new 
State was dependent on a settlement of this question. Up to this 
time the balance of power between the North and the South had 
been preserved since of the twenty-two States now composing 
the Union, eleven had free labor and eleven permitted slavery. 
The vast Louisiana Purchase, from which the territory of 
Missouri had been carved, was now being opened to colonization. 
Northerners did not want the Louisiana Purchase opened to 
slavery, for the formation of new slave-holding States would 
give the South control of the Senate. On the other hand, 
Southerners emigrating to this new territory claimed the privi- 
lege of carrying their slaves with them and sought to come into 
the Union as slave States. Since the interests of the two sections 
were directly opposite each wished to have control of the gov- 
ernment. The North, already able to outvote the South in the 
House of Representatives because of her greater popvilation, and 
having an even balance of power in the Senate, now declared 
that Congress had power to restrict slavery in the public domain. 
This the South emphatically denied saying that no such power 
had been given the national government by the Constitution; 
that the government in taking such power was overstepping the 
authority granted it by the States. 

321. The Missouri Compromise. Slaves were numerous in 
Missouri and when the territory applied for admission into the 
Union in 1819 its citizens wished it to come as a slave-holding 
State. To this the North was bitterly opposed and ill-feeling 
between the two sections was increased. While excitement was 
at its height, Maine knocked at the door for admission. As 
Maine would be a free-labor State, the South would not agree 
to its admission unless Missouri were allowed to come in as a 
slave State and thus preserve the balance of power. What is 
known as the "Missouri Compromise" was now proposed by 
Senator Jesse B. Thomas of Illinois and agreed to. Under the 
terms of the compromise, Missouri came in as a State with 


slaves, but slavery was prohibited elsewhere in the Louisiana 
Purchase north of latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes, which is the 
southern boundary of Missouri. The "Missouri Compromise," 
so famous in the history of our country, stood for many years, 
though in reality it gave satisfaction to neither side. 

322. Tariff Goes Higher. Meanwhile the tariff was raised 
higher and higher. The South felt that she was being badly 
treated. It seemed that the North because of its greater 
white population and more members in Congress was trying to 
take all the powers of government. The tariff of 1828 was called 
the "Tariff of Abominations," and the legislature of South 
Carolina, as we have said, protested against its injustice. The 
breach between the two sections was rapidly widening. 

323. Hayne-Webster Debate. At this crisis one of the 
greatest debates in American history took place on the floor of 
the Senate. This was between Robert Y. Hayne of South Caro- 
lina and Daniel Webster of Massachusetts. The debate con- 
cerned the rights of the states and the rights of the Union. 
Hayne declared that the Constitution was an agreement between 
the states as equals. He argued that in the Constitution the 
states had given some clearly stated rights to the central govern- 
ment and had kept all other rights for themselves. He said that 

when the central government overstepped 
these clearly stated rights then the states 
could refuse obedience. Webster claimed 
that the Constitution was not an agree- 
ment between the states but was the form 
of government for the American people 
as a whole and that no one state had the 
right to veto any act of the central govern- 

324. South Carolina in a Turmoil. 
Robert t. Hatnb, The people of South Carolina were divided 
Famous orator who over the question of what a state could do 

fought for States 

Rights in the Senate, to rcsist a law passcd by Congress. All 



agreed to the injustice of the high 
tariff laws, but one party, called the 
Union party, held that South Caro- 
lina having entered the Union of her 
own free will could withdraw from, 
the Union whenever she chose, but 
that as long as she was a member 
of the Union she could not veto, or 
"nullify," an act of the central gov- 
ernment. The other party was called 
the Nullification party and was led 
by John C. Calhoun, ably supported 
by Robert Y, Hayne, George Mc- 
Dufiie and James Hamilton, Jr. In 
1830 the Union party elected the in- 
tendant of Charleston, while the 
"Nullifiers" elected the governor, 
James Hamilton, Jr. These parties 
were often on the verge of bloodshed 
in Charleston. Feeling in the state 
was at fever heat. 

325. Ordinance of Nullification. 
The crisis came in 1832 when Congress again increased the tariff. 
John C. Calhoun had succeeded Hayne in the Senate and Hayne 
had returned to South Carolina and had been elected governor 
in 1832 by the ''Nullifiers." The Nullification party in South 
Carolina was estimated at 20,000 and the Union party at 15,000. 
The "Nullifiers" elected their men to the legislature. A con- 
vention with Governor Hayne as chairman met at Columbia, at 
the suggestion of Calhoun, and declared the tariffs of 1828 and 
1832 null and void. The convention declared that if the United 
States tried to use force to make the State pay the tariff South 
Carolina would secede from the Union and set up a government 
of its own. This was the famous Ordinance of Nullification. 
The victorious ' ' Nullifiers ' ' celebrated their victory with a torch- 

JoHN C. Calhoun, 

The Great South Carolina 



light procession in Charleston. They made a demonstration 
against the City Gazette, the Union newspaper, and in vari- 
ous ways expressed their contempt for the defeated Union party. 

326. Steps of the National Government. In reply to the 
Ordinance of Nullification Andrew Jackson, the President of 
the United States at the time, issued a proclamation denouncing 
the ordinance and begging the people of his native state (Jack- 
son was born in the Waxhaw section in South Carolina) not to 
defy the national government and break its laws. Governor 
Hayne replied, asserting the right of the state to refuse to obey 
unjust laws of Congress. President Jackson then sent armed 
vessels to Charleston to enforce the tariff laws. Meanwhile 
soldiers were being trained in South Carolina, large supplies 
of ammunition were bought, and a call was made for volunteers. 

327. Clay's Compromise. War between South Carolina 
and the United States was prevented by a compromise bill 
offered in Congress by Henry Clay of Kentucky. Clay's 
compromise bill provided that the tariff should be reduced 
gradually so that by the end of ten years it would furnish money 
only for the expenses of the government. This bill, after being 
passed by Congress, removed the cause of the trouble, and South 
Carolina repealed the Ordinance of Nullification. 

328. The Right to Nullify Laws and to Secede. It has 
been the custom of prejudiced or poorly informed historians to 
point to South Carolina as the ringleader both in nullifying 
laws of Congress and in threatening to leave the Union. As a 
matter of fact, thirteen other states — seven in the North and six 
in the South — had at one time or another declared that they 
had a right to nullify laws of Congress which hurt their interests. 
As for seceding from the Union, the New England states 
threatened to do it long before South Carolina ; as we shall soon 
see, actually did do it. New England threatened to leave the 
Union and said it had a right to do so when the War of 1812 
was declared and again when tlie United States went to war 
with Mexico. 



329. Anti-Slavery Cry in the North. A far greater 
cause for worry than the tariff lay in the growing opposition in 
the North to slavery in the South. By the Missouri Compromise 
it was settled that none of the northern states of the new terri- 
tory in the West should be slave-holding. It was thought that 
this would end the trouble. But it did not. The twenty years 
following the Missouri Compromise marked the forming of many 
anti-slavery societies in the North. Traveling preachers made 
the rounds of the country denouncing slavery. By 1834 sharp 
debates were heard in Congress on the subject. By 1835 there 
were 350 societies in the North which made it their business to 
send into the South violent anti-slavery literature intended to 
arouse a wish for freedom among the slaves themselves. In 
1834 a mob broke in the post-office in Charleston and destroyed 
a quantity of these anti-slavery pamphlets. Lluch bitterness of 
feeling was arising out of the question of slavery. The Aboli- 
tionists, so called because they wanted to abolish slavery, were 
frequently led by meddlesome busybodies. The Abolitionists 
offered no remedy for the evils which would befall the South 
when the negroes were freed. 

330. Bitterness Over Nullification Ended. George Me- 
Duffie, Pierce M. Butler, Patrick Noble, 
B. K. Henagan and John Peter Richard- 
son had in the order named held the 
office of governor after Hayne. It was 
worthy of note that the bitterness be- 
tween the Union men and "Nullifiers" 
in South Carolina had entirely ended in 
1840, for Richardson had been one of the 
leaders of the Union party against the 
"Nullifiers." This old bitterness had 
been forgotten in the more serious 
trouble over slavery. ^^^^^^, 

331. How the South Felt About Noted orator who served 

Slavery. South Carolina had regretted Governor'' '"''' ^' 


from the beginning the existence of slavery and even in the days 
of the Proprietors had made efforts to check it, Henry and John 
Laurens had been strongly in favor of liberty for the negroes. 
The South as a whole was beginning to feel that slavery was an 
evil when the invention of the cotton gin made slave labor so 
profitable in the cotton fields that although the bringing in of 
slaves was stopped there was no more talk of freeing those 
already here. As the fight against slavery grew into national 
importance, the Southern states began to resent what they con- 
sidered the meddlesome interference of the North. They had not 
resented the open fight over the admission of ' ' slave ' ' and ' ' free ' ' 
states of the western territory into the Union. But the opinion 
was strong in the South that each state had absolute control 
over its own affairs, except for those clearly stated powers they 
had surrendered to the national government when they ratified 
the Constitution. This was their understanding when they 
entered the Union. 

332. Abolitionists Hamper Freeing Slaves. The labor of 
slaves was of great importance to the South in growing cotton, 
but the freeing of slaves was not uncommon in the South. 
Societies organized in that section to promote it were active. 
However, the freed negroes had already given trouble and the 
Southern people thought it unwise to increase their numbers 
while the Abolitionists were exciting them. Furthermore, the 
propaganda of the Abolitionists, carried on through the medium 
of their "preachers" and their published tracts with which they 
deluged the South, was beginning to have its effect. In Vir- 
ginia, the slaves had recently risen in insurrection under the 
leadership of a negro named Nat Turner, and murdered more 
than sixty white persons. Slave owners, realizing the lengths 
to which the ignorant and easily misguided negroes might be 
led by the agitation of the Abolitionists, now claimed the pro- 
tection guaranteed them by the Constitution and demanded the 
suppression of the anti-slavery agitators and their publications. 
These meddlesome activities of the Abolitionists aroused keen 



resentment in the South, and made a peaceable solution of the 
slavery question or a gradual emancipation of the negroes im- 

333. Calhoun Leads Fight for States' Rights. As John 
C. Calhoun had been South Carolina's leader in Nullification 
troubles, he now led the fight for states' rights on the slavery 
question. This formed the subject of conversation at all cross 
roads, in every little village and in every courthouse in the 
state. In the cities and larger towns one could have heard 
public speeches almost daily in the town halls where the people 
eagerly gathered. In 1842 Governor Richardson was succeeded 
by James H. Hammond, who had been a ''Nullifier" and was a 
great believer in states' rights. During his term the Citadel in 
Charleston and the Arsenal in Columbia were changed into 
military schools as Governor Richardson had recommended. 

Engine and Cars on the Railroad Between Charleston and Hamburg. 

334. First Railway in the United States. During all 
the bitterness over how best to nullify the tariff laws and over 
the question of doing away with slavery. South Carolinians went 
right on developing their state. While the excitement about 
nullifying the tariff laws was at its height, the South Carolina 
Canal & Railroad Company was at work building a steam rail- 
road from Charleston to Hamburg, a town on the Savannah 
River opposite Augusta, Georgia. The money for building the 
railway was raised almost entirely among the men of Charleston, 
who believed that their city's trade would increase greatly from 


the railroad. The railway was finished in 1833. It was 136 
miles long and was the first steam railroad to be operated suc- 
cessfully in the United States. Its tracks were wooden timbers 
to which strips of iron were nailed. It was the longest railway 
in the world. Some men did not want tracks laid on their 
plantations, fearing that the trains would kill their little negro 
slaves and cattle. Some villages would not let the railroad pass 
through them on account of the smoke and noise from the 
engines. Other railway lines were built in the next few years. 
William Aiken, Elias Horry and Robert Y. Hayne, the states- 
men, were three of the leaders in the new enterprise of railway 

335- What the Railways Did. In the course of time, 
steam railways, as they hauled freight and passengers quicker 
and cheaper, succeeded the rivers and canals as the chief carriers 
of the crops to market. Charleston and its citizens took the lead 
in providing money for new railways because they wanted the 
city to hold its place as one of the greatest on the Atlantic coast 
of the United States. The Santee canal, a great and serviceable 
trade route for Charleston, was finally put out of business by 
steam railroads. In the early days, it was necessary for a city 
to be on the sea or on a river or a canal to enjoy a great trade. 
Now it became necessary for a city to be on a railway to prosper. 

336. William Gregg, Cotton Manufacturer. We have told 
how the invention of the Whitney cotton gin in 1793 made 
cotton the chief crop in South Carolina, caused farmers in the 
Up-Country to ow^n slaves and started the manufactviring of 
cotton yarn and cotton cloth on a larger scale. The manufac- 
turing of cotton cloth in South Carolina did not amount to much 
until 1847 when the Graniteville Mill in the Horse Creek Valley 
in Aiken County put its first cloth on the market. The president 
of this company was William Gregg, a rich merchant of Charles- 
ton. He saw the future of cotton manufacturing with great 
clearness and allowed nothing to stop him in his task of organ- 
izing cotton mills. William Gregg was the first great cotton 



manufacturer in South Carolina. The soundness of his ideas on 
manufacturing cotton is recognized to this day. Gregg wanted 
to give work to the people in South Carolina who owned no 
slaves. These people had a very hard time trying to farm as 
cheaply as men could who owned slaves to whom they paid no 
wages. Gregg said that the cotton mills would give employment 
to thousands of people. So it proved in after years. 

337. Trouble With Mexico. In 
1844 William Aiken was elected gover- 
nor and was followed in 1846 by David 
Johnson. During their terms, the bitter- 
ness of the slavery argument was some- 
what lost in the growing trouble be- 
tween the United States and Mexico. 
In 1827 Mexico had freed its slaves. Its 
northern province, Texas, was peopled 
largely by settlers from the United 
States. Many of these were slaveholders 
and refused to free their slaves. In 
1835 Texas set up a separate govern- 
ment. War followed with Mexico in 
which hundreds of men from the 
Southern states and many from South 
Carolina were brutally killed. Texas finally won the war and 
in 1845 applied to the United States for admission as a slave- 
holding state into the Union. Texas was admitted. Whereupon 
Mexico refused to recognize the independence of Texas and de- 
clared war upon the United States in 1846. New England 
threatened to secede from the Union because it feared that with 
Texas admitted as a slave-holding state the South would have 
the balance of power in the Senate. 

338. The Palmetto Regiment. At the request of Presi- 
dent Polk, South Carolina raised a regiment of infantry to serve 
in the war with Mexico. The regiment was commanded by 
Colonel Pierce M. Butler, of Edgefield, who had been governor 

CoLOXKL Pierce M. 


Governor of South Caro- 
Una and afterwards 
Commander of the Pal- 
metto Regiment, killed in 
the Mexican War. 



of South Carolina from 1836 to 1838. J. P. Dickinson of Ker- 
shaw County was elected lieutenant colonel and A. H. Gladden 
of Richland County, major. The regiment was known as the 
Palmetto Regiment and by its bravery won a lasting place in the 
history of American arms. 

339. Battles in Mexico. After helping to capture Vera 
Cruz, tlie principal seaport of Mexico, the Palmetto Regiment 
as a part of the army commanded by General Winfield Scott, 

bore the heaviest of the Mexi- 
can fire at the Battle of 
Churubusco. Colonel Butler 
was killed in this battle and 
Lieutenant Colonel Dickinson 
mortally wounded. Both were 
brave men. Just before his 
death Colonel Butler wrote to 
General Worth that Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Dickinson "de- 
sires a place near the flashing 
of the guns." Both Butler 
and Dickinson tired of the in- 
action to which they were 
forced before the Battle of 
Churubusco. The Palmetto 
Regiment, commanded by 
Major Gladden after Churu- 
busco, helped capture Chapultepec, a strong fortress just outside 
the City of Mexico. The flag of South Carolina was the first to 
float over any part of the City of Mexico. The fall of this great 
city practically ended the war. 

340. Palmetto Regiment Honored. The Palmetto Regi- 
ment did its part gloriously in the War with Mexico. Only 
about three hundred of the thousand or more volunteers who 
formed the regiment returned after the war ended. The General 
Assembly voted heavy medals of gold for the officers and of 


Palmetto Regijiext. 



silver for the men. It also had erected in honor of the Palmetto 
Regiment a monument in the form of a bronze and iron palmetto 
tree on the State House grounds. 

341. Orators and Literary Men. There were no greater 
orators in America than Calhoun, Hayne, Lowndes, McDuffie 
and Cheves. The great questions of this period gave them 
opportunity to display their oratorical gifts. Hugh Swinton 
Legare and William Henry Trescot were two South Carolina 
literary men and diplomats who were known in Europe as well 
as in the United States. In Charleston, there was a group of 
writers* whose poems, novels and stories 
were eagerly read and admired all over 
the United States, Henry Timrod, 
whom we cherish now as the State's 
greatest poet, was one of the writers in 
the Charleston group and Paul Hamil- 
ton Hayne, also a great poet, was an- 
other member of the group. 

342. Hugh Swinton Legare. Le- 
gare was born in Charleston in 1797. 
He was a pupil in Dr. Waddell's 
famous school in Abbeville County. He 
went to South Carolina College from 
the Waddell school and afterward con- 
tinued his study of law in Paris and Edinburgh. Legare came 
back to Charleston in 1820 and was elected to the legislature 
where he served ten years. Then he was made attorney general. 
In 1832 the President appointed Legare charge d'affaires at the 
American legation in Brussels. After four years as a diplomat 

Henry Timrod, 

South Carolina's most 

famous poet. 

*0f the novelists in the Charleston group, William Gilmoro Simms takes first 
place. Simms was born in Charleston in ISOG and was the moving spirit of the 
group of literary men in that city. In his work Simms portrays the Southern 
character in provincial and Revolutionary days. He has drawn impressive pic- 
tures of the scenery of the Low-Country and truthful characterizations of the 
Indians. He has written a scries of romances of the Revolution and many 
volumes dealing with the legends of South Carolina. Simms died in Charleston 
in 1870. — The Editor. 



he returned to America and entered Congress. Then he was 
made attorney general. As a scholarly lawyer, he had no equal 
in America. 

343. William Henry Trescot. Another South Carolinian 
with a national reputation was William Henry Trescot, who was 
born in Charleston in 1821. He was graduated from the College 
of Charleston, studied law and was also a planter. Early in life 
he devoted himself to the study of the diplomatic history of the 
United States or, in other words, to the study of our country's 
relations with foreign nations. Trescot wrote a famous book on 
"The Diplomacy of the Revolution." Like Legare, Trescot was 
appointed to a diplomatic post in Europe, serving as secretary 
of the legation in London. He was a member of the legislature 
of South Carolina. Trescot deserves to be remembered because 
he was the first man to study thoroughly the diplomatic history 
of the United States. 

344. Paul Hamilton Hayne. 
Hayne was born in Charleston in 1830. 
His family was wealthy. His father 
died early and Hayne was brought up 
by his mother and his uncle, the states- 
man Robert Y. Hayne. He studied law 
but found that his heart was not in it. 
He gave up his law practice and be- 
came editor of Russell's Magazine in 
Charleston, which he made a great suc- 
cess with the help of the large literary 
circle of the city. During this period 
he published three volumes of poetry. 
Hayne 's poems are read to this day. He was one of the best 
poets of the old South. 

345. Henry Timrod. Timrod was born in Charleston in 
1829. His father was a soldier in the Seminole War and also 
the author of a volume of poems. Timrod tried, like Hayne, to 
practice law but gave it up because he did not like it. His life 

Paul Hamilton Hatnb, 
The South Carolina poet. 



is one long story of misfortune. He had no money to support 
himself while he wrote and had to earn his living as a teacher. 
He was one of the ablest of the literary men in Charleston. 
When the war between the North and the South finally came 
Timrod enlisted as a private, but his 
health failing he was sent back from the 
front. He wrote stirring poems about 
the war. It is not likely that his 
"Cotton Boll" and "Charleston" will 
ever be forgotten. Every South Caro- 
linian should know his "Carolina," 
which is our state hymn. Timrod easily 
ranks as one of the greatest poets 
America has ever produced. 

346. A Great Surgeon. One of the 
great men of the time who became 
famous in this country and in Europe 
as a surgeon was James Marion Sims. He was born near the 
town of Lancaster in 1813. He was a graduate of South Caro- 
lina College and afterwards studied medicine in Charleston and 
in Philadelphia. In 1835 he returned to South Carolina and 
began the practice of medicine in Lancaster but, getting dis- 
couraged, he moved to Alabama. It was not long before he made 
a great reputation as a surgeon. He then moved to New York 
City and established there the first hospital for women in the 
world. He soon became famed for his wonderful surgical opera- 
tions. He went to Europe and was hailed as one of the greatest 
surgeons in the world. Sims will always be honored by the 
medical profession. 

J. Marion Sims, 
The great surgeon. 



347. Balance of States Threatened. The United States 
after the victory over Mexico got from that country the territory 
out of which has since been formed California and some other 
Western states. This directly concerns us because the great 
question of the day was whether this territory should be "free" 
or slaveholding. It became the subject of famous debates in 
Congress. A great many wished to stop outright the carrying 
of slaves into the new territory. Others thought that the matter 
should be left to the people of the territory to decide. John C. 
Calhoun declared that Congress had no right to pass any law 
prohibiting citizens of any state from taking their slaves with 
them if they settled in the new territory. 

348. California Seeks Admission. At the close of the 
Mexican War there were fifteen "free" states and fifteen 
"slave" states in the Union. This then was an even balance 
which neither section was willing to have changed in favor of 
the other. A few days after the treaty of peace with Mexico 
was signed, gold was discovered in California. Citizens from 
every state in the Union sold their property and started for the 
gold fields. In less than two years there were enough people in 
California to ask for admission as a state into the Union. In 
1849 California asked to come in as a "free" state. As this 
would have destroyed the balance there were threats throughout 
the South of withdrawing from the Union or seceding if Cali- 
fornia were allowed to come in as a "free" state. 

349. Runaway Slaves. At this time many slaves were 
escaping from the "slave" into the "free" states. They were 
helped by Northerners who made a business qI aiding runaway 



slaves to escape from their masters. It was estimated that about 
a thousand a year escaped from the Southern states and that 
there were about 20,000 living in the ' ' free ' ' states. The system 
for helping these slaves to escape was called the "underground 
railroad." There were numerous "stations," usually a cellar 
or a barn, where the runaways were hidden in the day 
and hurried on to the next "station" by night, and so on 
until they reached the "free" states. The South considered 
this deliberate stealing of its property and resented it accord- 

350. Two Great Speeches in Congress. Two of the most 
famous speeches in Congress were delivered in the Senate in 
March, 1850. One was by Daniel Webster of Massachusetts 
who declared in his speech that the North had wronged the 
South by helping the slaves to run away from their masters. 
He also denounced the Abolition Societies for stirring up strife. 
His speech gave great offense to the North. At this time Cal- 
houn, after serving the nation and the South for forty years, 
was a dying man. He tottered into the Senate and his speech 
had to be read for him. It was a most impressive scene. Calhoun 
was wrapped in a great cloak. His long white hair framed his 
thin, pallid face. His eyes flashed and his whole countenance 
lighted when certain stirring passages of his speech were read. 
Below are given portions of his speech. Throughout we see a 
plea for the holding together of the Union but not at the expense 
of the rights of the states. 

351. Parts of Calhoun's Last Speech. "How can the 
Union be saved? There is but one way . . . and that is by a 
full and final settlement, 'on the principle of justice, of all 
questions at issue. The South asks for justice, simple justice, 
and less she ought not to take . . . 

"But can this be done? Yes, easily; not by the weaker 
party . . . but by the stronger. The North has only ... to 
do justice by conceding to the South an equal right in the 
acquired territory, and to do her duty by causing the stipulations 



relative to fugitive slaves to be faithfully fulfilled, to cease to 
agitate the slave question . . . 

"But will the North agree to this? It is for her to answer. 
... If you who represent the stronger party cannot agree to 

The Old State House Which Stood in Columbia. 

settle them on the broad principle of justice and duty, say so; 
and let the states we both represent agree to separate and part 
in peace." 

From this speech we see to what lengths South Carolina was 
prepared to go in defense of her rights — even to the breaking 
up of the Union. 

352. Death of Calhoun. The great Calhoun died in Wash- 
ington at the end of March, 1850. The whole nation respected 
him, and the whole South mourned him. South Carolina lost in 
him her greatest statesman. His body was carried to Charleston 
and buried there. Monuments have been erected to Calhoun in 
Charleston and elsewhere. 

353. Compromise of 1850. In 1850 John H. Means became 
governor of South Carolina following Governor Whitemarsh B. 


Seabrook. In August of that year the dispute about California 
was ended in Congress by alloMdng California to come into the 
Union as a "free" state and at the same time passing a very 
severe runaway slave act. Letting California enter the Union 
as a "free" state was offensive to the South and passing the 
severe runaway slave law was very offensive to the North. So 
the Compromise of 1850, as the two acts were called, was the 
cause of added bitterness between the sections. 

354. Southern Feeling Changes Toward Slavery. The 
Abolitionists had caused a complete change of feeling in the 
South on the question of holding slaves. South Carolina had 
seen the evil of slavery long before the Revolutionary War. 
There had been many plans for the freeing of the negroes. It 
is true that the negroes, brought from Africa in a savage state, 
had become civilized under slavery and the great majority of 
them were treated with kindness and mercy. But there was 
always the opportunity for injustice and cruelty from stern, 
unjust masters or overseers. The time was passing when the 
world thought it right to hold human beings in bondage. How- 
ever it was a big question to settle. The South felt that in any 
case its citizens should be the ones to settle it. When the Aboli- 
tion Societies were formed in the North and Northern preachers 
and lecturers denounced the South on all occasions, the South 
naturally resented it. The attitude of this section towards 
slavery began to change. Southerners would no longer admit the 
evil of holding slaves. They emphasized the fact that slavery 
had taken savages into a civilized, Christian land. They brought 
out the fact that before these negroes came to the South they 
had never even heard of Christ. Their masters had taught them 
how to till the soil and how to live a useful life. 

355. "Uncle Tom's Cabin." About this time a book was 
published by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a Northern woman. It was 
called "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and in it only the cruel, bestial 
side of slavery was described. It was a side undoubtedly in 
existence but one which was overshadowed by the kindly treat- 


ment the great majority of slaves received. This book caused 
much bitterness in the South. 

356. Moving into Kansas. John L. Manning became gov- 
ernor of South Carolina in 1852 and was followed in 1854 by 
James H. Adams. Interest in state affairs amounted to nothing 
compared to the question whether Kansas should be admitted as 
a "slave" or a "free" state. Great numbers from both the 
North and South went to Kansas to influence its admission to 
the Union. Many went from South Carolina. Lives were lost 
in disputes between the settlers in Kansas. 

357. Brooks Canes Sumner. Admitting Kansas was de- 
bated in Congress with great bitterness. Senator Sumner of 
Massachusetts, a learned but narrow-minded Abolitionist, made 
a speech in which he used insulting language about Senator 
Butler of South Carolina who was in favor of Kansas being ad- 
mitted as a "slave" state. Senator Butler was not present. 
The uncalled for insult was resented by his nephew, Congressman 
Preston S. Brooks, who gave Senator Sumner a severe beating 
with a cane. The North was indignant over the affair and the 
South was of the opinion that Sumner had got only what he 

358. The "John Brown Raid." Robert F. W. Allston be- 
came governor of South Carolina in 1856 and was followed in 
1858 by William H. Gist. These four years were ones of great 
importance. They were marked by the increasing violence of 
the Abolitionists at which the South grew more and more en- 
raged. In Kansas an Abolitionist named John Brown organ- 
ized a band and one night made a raid on the farmhouses of 
several slaveholders. Seven or .eight men, unarmed, were killed 
and their bodies horribly cut up. Savage Indians could not have 
been more brutal. In 1859 the same John Brown, who in the 
meantime had spent his time helping runaway slaves to escape 
from their masters, moved to Virginia and settled there with 
the idea of starting a great uprising among the slaves. He 
collected rifles and ammunition furnished by Northern 






I OltllM 4>t K. 

sympathizers and made a night attack on the arsenal at Harper's 
Ferry. The attempt on the arsenal failed. Brown was captured 
and hanged. There was great excitement all over the South 
over the "John Brown raid." It had the effect of unifying the 
South against the North. 

359. Presidential Election of i860. As the year 1860 drew 
near there was intense excitement in both sections, for this was 
the time for the election of the president of the United States. 
The "slave" states were determined to elect a man who was not 
opposed to slavery. The Northern states were equally deter- 
mined to elect a man opposed to 
slavery. South Carolina threat- 
ened to secede, or withdraw 
from the Union, if the Northern 
Republican candidate was elected. 

360. Lincoln's Election. 
Abraham Lincoln was the Re- 
publican candidate for president. 
The Republicans had anti-slavery 
as the chief plank in their plat- 
form. Lincoln was a man of 
lowly birth who had studied law 
and made his own way in the 
world. He had been a member 
of the legislature of Illinois and 
then a member of Congress. He 
opposed slavery. On November 
6, 1860, he was elected president 
of the United States. 

361. South Carolina Secedes 
from the Union. South Caro- 
lina immediately called a Con- 

vention to meet in December at „ 
- LxTUA Edition of a Chauleston 

C olumbia. On account of small- newspapeu announcing that 

,,„^ ,• r<^ u- J.1 /-( ^- South Carolina had Seceded 

pox m Columbia the Convention from the union. 





moved to Charleston. The most prominent leaders of the State 
were sent to this Convention. The State was wild with en- 
thusiasm. On Dee. 20, 1860, the ordinance of secession was 
passed. By unanimous vote the union between South Carolina 
and the United States was declared dissolved. Once again, as 
in 1776 when she had declared her independence of England, 
South Carolina was a free and independent state. 

362. Excitement. Crowds waited outside the convention 
hall in Charleston to hear the news. When the word was passed 
that South Carolina had withdrawn from the Union they gave 
wild cheers of delight. The bells of St. Michael's rang in 
triumph, drums beat and cannon roared. The people were wild 
with joy. Secession from the United States had stirred South 
Carolina as it had never been stirred before in its history. 

363. People Approve of Secession. For once the people of 
South Carolina were united in a matter deeply affecting the 
State. There was no division of opinion over the right to secede 
and no question raised as to its being the best course, except by 

a scattered individual here and 
there. The Revolutionary War 
was fought — and largely won — 
by South Carolina over the op- 
position of a large part of its 
people. The people split sharply 
on the question of how best to 
nullify the unjust tariff laws in 
1832. But in 1860 there was 
practically no opposition to seced- 
ing from the United States. 
The slave-owners believed that 
Lincoln's election made it certain 
that they would be robbed of 
their slaves. South Carolinians 

who owned no slaves believed 
St. Michael's Church in ,,,.11 i . 1 j 

chahleston. that the slaves, who outnumbered 




^ iH 

_^_.r , 



the white people, would be freed and rule the State. Slave- 
owners and non-slaveowners thought the North had acted 
wrongly toward the South in passing high tariff laws. They be- 
lieved it would be better for the North and the South to have 
separate governments. After South Carolina seceded, she called 
on other states to secede also and join her in forming a con- 
federacy or union of Southern states. 

364. Firing on "The Star of the West." Fort Moultrie 
on Sullivan's Island was commanded by Major Anderson, a 
United States officer. He moved to Fort Sumter in Charleston 
harbor because he thought it stronger than Fort Moultrie. The 
United States sent supplies for Major Anderson on a steamer, 
The Star of the West. This vessel was fired on from Morris 
Island by some Citadel cadets. The Star of the West retired 
without trying further to reach Fort Sumter. 

365. Forming the Confederacy. After the firing on The 
Star of the West, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and Florida 
seceded from the Union. By February, 1861, Louisiana and 
Texas also withdrew from the Union. A convention of these 
seven States met in Montgomery, Alabama, and formed the Con- 
federate States of America. Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was 
chosen president. The Confederate government then immedi- 
ately seized every fort, except four, in the seven states. It also 
took possession of the navy yards, post offices, custom houses 
and arsenals. Among the forts still held by the United States 
was Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor. 


366. South Carolina Prepares for War. South Carolina 
began at once to equip vessels for war and raised the Palmetto 
flag over them. She seized United States vessels sailing in South 
Carolina waters. She built floating batteries of palmetto logs 

and mounted heavy guns on them. Gov- 
ernor Francis W. Pickens issued commis- 
sions in the naval service of the State. A 
regiment of infantry regulars was formed 
and the command given to Richard H. 
Anderson of Sumter. A regiment of artil- 
lery regulars was formed and the com- 
mand given to Roswell S. Ripley, a native 
of Ohio, but a resident of Charleston. A 
regiment of volunteers for six months' 
service in the State was formed and the 
command given to Maxcy Gregg. A call 
was sent out for ten regiments of volun- 
teers for one year's service. The flrst 
regiment to organize under this call chose Johnson Hagood of 
Barnwell as its colonel. These soldiers were stationed near 
Charleston and drilled. 

367. South Carolina Takes Fort Sumter. In March, 
1861, news came that the United States had sent a fleet of ships 
to Charleston. The new regiments were hurried to the city. It 
was decided to try to take Fort Sumter from Major Anderson, 
the United States officer who held it, before the fleet arrived. 
On April 12, the South Carolina forces began to bombard the 
fort. The city was in the wildest excitement. The Battery at 
Charleston was crowded with people who gathered there to 


General Roswell S. 

Prominpnt among the 
defenders ' of South 
Carolina during the 



watch the battle. At one time the United States flag over the 
fort was shot down and the onlookers cheered wildly. One of 
the crowd yelled ' ' Hurrah for Anderson, too ! ' '. The firing 
lasted thirty-three hours and Major Anderson surrendered. Fort 
Sumter was in the hands of the State again, and many felt that 
the war was ended. 

368. Richmond Made the Confederate Capital. After 
South Carolina took Fort Sumter, Virginia seceded from the 
Union and asked to join the Confederacy. North Carolina, 
Arkansas and Tennessee soon followed suit making now eleven 
States in the Confederacy. Virginia invited the Confederate 
government to make Richmond its capital. The offer was 
accepted and President Davis went to that city. The first 
Confederate Congress was called to meet there. 

369. Greater Strength of the North. At the outset it 
looked as if the United States had the advantage of the Con- 
federacy in every way. In the first place, 
there were twenty-three Northern states while 
there were only eleven in the Confederacy. 
The population of the Northern states was 
22,000,000 while the South had only 9,000,000 
and a large part of these were negroes and 
unfit for army service. In the second place, 
the North was far richer than the South. It 
had great foundries and factories, while the 
South was only rich in agriculture. The 
North could thus furnish an army with 
powder and ammunition, while the South had 
to build works in order to supply its army. 
Then the United States had a regular trained 
army of 16,367 men and a navy which, how- 
ever badly trained and small, was better than 

none. Lastly, the North had the great advantage of foreign 
relations ; that is, foreign countries recognized the United States 
as a nation. 





370. The Southerners' Advantages. From the greater 
strength of the North it woukl seem certain that victory would 
lie with the United States. But the Confederates instead of be- 
ing discouraged felt sure of success. Every Southern man who 

had the strength to carry a gun thought 
that he was the equal of at least three 
Yankees. The men of the South were 
able horsemen and skillful riflemen. They 
had disciplined slaves for two hundred 
years. They were noted for their daring 
and courage. At that time the South also 
had as fine statesmen as any nation could 
produce. The fact that the Confederates 
were to fight on their own soil for their 
homes and their families was also in their 
favor. They were not alarmed over the 
advantages the North possessed but 
entered the war with every hope of 

371. Two Main Objects of the Northern Army. The 
North had two main objects in view from the outset. The first 
was to keep its own capital, Washington, safe ; and to capture 
the Confederate capital, Richmond. The second was to get con- 
trol of the Mississippi River, which would cut the Confederacy 
in two, as it would separate Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana from 
the other Southern states. 

372. Confederate Plans. The Confederacy formed two 
great armies. One was called the Army of Northern Virginia 
and the command of it was given to General Joseph E. Johnston. 
This army was to protect Richmond. The second army was 
called the Army of the West and the command of it was given 
to General Albert Sidney Johnston. This was to keep the 
Northern army from taking the Mississippi. There were some 
soldiers from South Carolina who volunteered for service in the 
Army of the West, but the greater number from this state fought 



in Virginia with the Army of Northern Virginia, so our chief 
interest will be in the battles in Virginia. 

373. First Battle of Manassas. In the early part of the 
summer of 1861 the Confederate soldiers gathered in Virginia. 
The main body of the army, under the command of General 
Beauregard, camped at Manassas in eastern Virginia. The 
Northern or Union army, as it was called, was camped on the 
Potomac river opposite Washington. On July 16 this army 
moved to attack Beauregard. The forces were almost equal. 
At first the Confederates were driven back about a mile to a 
plateau where General Thomas J. Jackson stood. AVitli him 
were Wade Hampton with the Hampton Legion and General 
Barnard E. Bee of South Carolina. As the men began to waver 
at the approach of the Union arni}^, General Bee cried: "Look 
at Jackson! There he stands like a stone wall." Rallying, the 
Confederates drove the enemy back. As they fought a small 
force from General Johnston's army came up and victory lay 
with the Confederates. The Union army 
fled thinking that all of General Johnston 's 
army was upon them. It is said that some 
of the Northerners dropped their guns and 
ran long after no one pursued them. Am- 
munition, guns, wagons and provisions 
were left behind and fell into the hands of 
the Confederates. The South Carolina of- 
ficers at First Manassas were General M. 
L. Bonham, Colonel N. G. Evans, General General Barnard b. 
Barnard E. Bee and Colonel Wade Hamp- billed at Sffirst battle 
ton. Colonel Evans was in command of a «* Manassas, gave 

. . Jackson the nlck- 

brigade and held a very miportant position name "Stonewaii." 
in the battle. General Bee, who had given 

Jackson the nickname of "Stonewall," was killed during the 
battle. General Johnston, commander of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, afterwards said that the day was saved by Wade Hamp- 
ton of South Carolina. 



General N. G. Evans, 

Who resigned from the 

United States Army 

to fight for his State. 

374. Effect of the Battle. The defeat of the Union army 
at Manassas was a great shock to the people of the North who 
had been certain that victory would be theirs. So certain were 

they that many members of the United 
States Congress had ridden down in their 
carriages from Washington to see the great 
victory over the "rebels" as the 
Northerners called the Confederate sol- 
diers. The defeat was a terrible blow to 
their hopes but it made them realize the 
seriousness of the war and the need for 
preparation. On the other hand the South 
was carried away with enthusiasm over the 
victory. They had taken Fort Sumter 
from a Union force and had made a Union 
army flee in a panic at Manassas. They 
heard that the North was calling its own army a band of 
cowards, and they felt that it was not going to be very hard to 
defeat them. 

375. The United States Takes Port Royal. In Novem- 
ber, 1861, Port Royal fell before a large 

Northern fleet. The rich rice growing 
country about Port Royal and Beaufort 
was overrun by Union soldiers. The whole 
section was laid waste by these soldiers. 
Beaufort was one of the richest towns of 
its size in the world at that time and was 
therefore a fine place to plunder. The 
large plantations and the princely houses 
along the coast were pillaged. This section 
was about the first Confederate ground 
the Unionists gained. 

376. Summary of Year 1861. On the whole, however, the 
Confederacy was well satisfied with its success in the year 1861. 
Its men had been put in training. Manufactories had been. 

General M. C. Butler, 
Noted Cavalry Leader. 


built. It had won a great victory in the one big battle of the 
year. It had taken Fort Sumter, and had been successful in 
small battles in Virginia and Missouri. Altogether the South 
was well pleased with the results of the first year of the war. 


377. Confederate Losses in 1862. The year 1862 opened 
with discouraging losses to the Confederates. Fort Donaldson, 
one of their strongest points on the Mississippi River, was cap- 
tured by the Unionists. Shortly afterward the Confederates won 
the Battle of Shiloh but in doing so they lost very heavily and 
in the battle General Albert Sidney Johnston, the great com- 
mander, was mortally wounded. In May New Orleans was cap- 
tured by the Unionists. This was a terrible loss because New 
Orleans had great iron foundries which were of utmost im- 
portance to the Confederacy. The city was put in command 
of B. F. Butler, a brutal Union officer who earned for himself the 
nickname of "Beast." 

378. Charleston Under Military Rule. South Carolina now 
became alarmed for Charleston and Governor Pickens proclaimed 
martial law over the city. All roads were watched and no one 
allowed to enter or to leave without a permit. Boats were 
ordered to anchor at certain wharves where they were closely 

inspected. The sale of 

liquors was stopped. The fall 
of New Orleans had made 
South Carolina feel that her 
chief city was not safe. 

379. Enemy Attack 
Charleston. In the midst of 
these preparations the fleet 
that had captured Port Royal 
and Beaufort decided to at- 
tack Charleston. The last of 
May three gunboats entered 

Map showing Charleston Harbor during 
tho War P.etween tho Sections. 




Stono River and began to shell Cole's and Battery islands. Soon 
these gunboats were running up and down the river every day 
shelling everything in sight. 

380. Gallantry of Colonel Capers. In June there were 
more than twenty Union vessels in sight of our troops on James 
Island. It was reported that they had landed on one end of the 
island. Colonel Ellison Capers was sent out with several com- 
panies to find out their position. He came upon them and in a 
sharp fight drove them back, although his force was greatly out- 
numbered. "When he had driven them 

back a mile and a half, more enemy soldiers 
came up and a gunboat on the river com- 
menced to fire on Capers and his men. 
Capers retreated then in good order hav- 
ing captured twenty-three prisoners. He 
was highly praised for his gallantry and 
good judgment in this fight. Colonel 
Capers was afterwards promoted to gen- 
eral and in later years became Episcopal 
bishop of South Carolina. 

381. The Battle of Secessionville. 
There were several small fights on James 
Island during the days following. Expect- 
ing a battle the four best South Carolina regiments were formed 
into a brigade and the command was given to Colonel Johnson 
Hagood. Shortly afterward word came that the enemy was 
advancing on the fort at Secessionville. Colonel Hagood ordered 
the brigade there. When it arrived the enemy was making the 
second assault upon the fort. The first had been a surprise. 
Colonel Lamar, in command of the fort, had been awake all night 
looking after strengthening it and had fallen asleep on the 
walls. Awakened by the coming of the enemy he aroused the 
garrison. When Colonel Hagood arrived the Unionists were 
defeated with great loss. They were so badly beaten that they 
gave up the attempt to take Charleston. 

Ellison Capers, 
General in the Con- 
federate Army and 
afterwards Episcopal 
Bishop of South Caro- 


382. Enemy Raids. South Carolina was now divided into 
several military districts to protect the people of the state from 
enemy raids. Yankee gunboats began running up and down the 
rivers with the idea of destroying the railways. Soldiers were 
placed in these districts to prevent this, and to protect the people 
of the country. These raids caused excitement in South Caro- 
lina, but the great interest of the people lay in Virginia where 
the game of war was being played on a grand scale. 

383. The Peninsula Campaign. In the spring the Union- 
ists began what was known as the Peninsula Campaign. This 

was another effort to take Richmond, the 
Confederate capital. The campaign began 
at Williamsburg and ended with the battle 
of Malvern Hill. The Unionists failed to 
take Richmond. General Joseph E. John- 
ston was wounded in the Battle of Seven 
Pines during this campaign and General 
Robert E. Lee was made commander-in- 
chief of the Southern army. Following 
General^ BENJAMIN ^^^ g^^^jg ^f g^^^^ p-^^^g ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

Distinguishefi by gal- days of bloody fighting before Richmond, 
^ntry at Malvern rpj^^j^ ^|^g Campaign ended With the Battle 

of Malvern Hill in which General 
Benjamin Huger of South Carolina gallantly led his division. 

384. South Carolinians in the Peninsula Campaign. South 
Carolina took a prominent part in winning the Peninsula Cam- 
paign. General Richard H. Anderson of South Carolina was in 
command of one-half of the Confederate forces. At Williams- 
burg General Mieah Jenkins led the South Carolina regiment 
known as the Palmetto Sharpshooters. General Jenkins dis- 
tinguished himself at the Battle of Seven Pines by charging a 
thicket held by the Unionists. Charging over logs and breast- 
works he drove them out of their camp in the woods and chased 
them into a second camp. He then captured this camp and 
drove them into the swamp. General Wade Hampton led a 



General Richard H. 

Comma nilor of half the 
ConftMlerate Forces in 
the Peninsula Cam- 

brigade in the Battle of Seven Pines. His 
men fought with desperate bravery and 
half of them were killed or wounded. 

385. Campaign in Northern Virginia. 
The Unionists had failed to capture Rich- 
mond by attacking from the south so now 
they tried a campaign in northern Vir- 
ginia. The battles of this campaign were 
fought around the field of the first great 
battle of the war — Manassas. One battle was 
fought and ended in victory for the Con- 
federates on almost the same ground and 
was called the Second Battle of Manassas. 
General Maxcy Gregg of South Carolina with great bravery 
held the Confederate left in this battle. General Wade Hamp- 
ton was second in command of the cavalry of our army during 
this campaign. The Confederates were wonderfully successful 
throughout the campaign and early in September the Unionists 
gave up this attempt to take Richmond. 

386. The Chambersburg Raid. The Confederates planned 
a raid to Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in the fall of 1862 to 
destroy the great supply of provisions the Unionists had stored 
there. Wade Hampton was placed second 

in command and Colonel M. C. Butler of 
South Carolina had charge of Hampton's 
advance. South Carolina had just cause 
to be proud of their bravery and success. 
They reached Chambersburg and Hamp- 
ton was made military governor of the 
town and Butler was placed in immediate 
command. They destroyed the supplies 

and ammunition but did no harm to private 

, . .1 1 ,. ,, . General Micah 

property or to the people of the town. Jenkins, 

Then they hurried homeward. They Whose saiiantry at 

Seven Pines was of 

destroyed about $250,000 worth of the the highest order. 



General Maxct Gregg, 
A brave Confederate 
Officer killea at Fred- 

supplies of the enemy and brought home 
with them over a thousand horses. 

387. Hampton and Butler Capture 
Christmas Provisions. Just before Christ- 
mas in 1862 the Union army was camped 
near Fredericksburg, Virginia. Wade 
Hampton learned through his scouts that 
a long train of wagons carrying a great 
supply of Christmas things for the Union 
army was on its way from Washington to 
Fredericksburg. Hampton decided to try 
to take some of these supplies for the Con- 
federates. Colonel Butler attacked the wagon train one night 
while the Union soldiers were asleep in their camp. Butler cap- 
tured the wagons and divided the goods among his men. Thus 
the Confederate soldiers were well supplied with clothing they 
needed badly as well as with all kinds of good things to eat for 

388. Battle of Fredericksburg. General Lee's army was 
camped on the heights near Fredericksburg. With General Lee 
were the brigades of Joseph B. Kershaw and Maxcy Gregg of 
South Carolina. The Union army at- 
tacked the Confederates on December 13. 
The battle was a great victory for the 
Confederates. A part of Kershaw's 
brigade fought on top of a hill. The 
Unionists tried in vain to drive them from 
this hill. In this battle General Maxcy 
Gregg of South Carolina was killed while 
fighting bravely. Colonel Samuel Mc- 
Gowan was given command of his brigade 
and promoted to brigadier general soon 



General Samuel 


Who succeeded to the 
conininnd of Gregg's 



1863 and 1864 

389. Unionists Capture Vicksburg. The year 1863 was 
an anxious one for the Confederates in spite of their great suc- 
cesses in Virginia. This was because the Unionists had for six 
months beseiged the important post of Vicksburg on tlie Missis- 
sippi. The fall of Vicksburg into the hands of the North would 
mean that the Confederacy would be cut in two. Texas, Louis- 
iana and Arkansas would be divided from the other Confederate 
states. The city of Vicksburg was shut off from the world by 
the Union army which surrounded it. Food was running low. In 
the spring the only food to be had was mule meat, dried peas and 
corn meal. By July this was gone and, as the people were starv- 
ing, Vicksburg surrendered. This was a crushing blow to the 

390. Battle of Gettysburg. Just about the time of the 
surrender of Vicksburg General Lee marched into Pennsylvania. 
With him was Wade Hampton, who was second in command of 
the cavalry of the army. They met the Unionists at Gettysburg. 
The battle raged for three days and about fifty thousand men 
were killed or wounded, about an equal number on both sides. 
The battle ended in defeat for the Confederates and General Lee's 
army was so badly crippled that he had to retreat into Virginia. 

391. The Victory of Chickamauga. Meantime, the Union 
Army of the West had steadily moved eastward after the fall of 
Vicksburg. In mid-summer it met the Confederate Army of 
the West at Chickamauga, Tennessee. There were three South 
Carolina Brigades in this army, Kershaw's, Gist's and Mani- 
gault's. The battle lasted two days and was one of the bloodiest 
of the war. Many brave men from this state lost their lives 




General Joseph B. 
Whose Brigade fought 
iu Virginia and in 
the West. 

during these two days. The battle ended 
in victory for the Confederates. 

392. Battle of Missionary Ridge. 
After the battle the Confederates camped 
on Missionary Ridge, a mountain near 
Chattanooga. Now the entire Union Army 
of tlie West which was far larger than 
the Confederate army attacked the Con- 
federates on Missionary Ridge. The Con- 
federates were driven back in utter defeat 
and had to retreat into the mountains of 
Georgia. This left the entire Mississippi 
valley in the hands of the enemy. The 
South began to realize the seriousness of the struggle. 

393- Fight of the Ironclads. Charleston harbor was 
blockaded by United States ships so that no Confederate vessels 
could get to sea except by slipping past the blockaders at night 
or during a fog. This was called running the blockade. Every 
effort was made to build ironclad vessels to fight these enemy 
ships and drive them away. At last three ironclads the Palmetto 
State, the Chicora and the Charleston were finished. Just before 
dawn one morning in January, 1863, the Palmetto State and the 
Chicora steamed out of the harbor towards the enemy ships. 
The Palmetto State attacked the nearest United States vessel 
while the Chicora steamed on and began a fight with several of 
of the ships. The attack of 
the two Confederate ironclads 
took the enemy by surprise. 
The nearest ship surrendered 
and the Palmetto State 
hurried to help the Chicora. 
A fierce battle followed and 
and the enemy ships were 
driven away. The victory of 
the ironclads was celebrated 

The New Ironsides, One of the 
TTnited States Ships Blockading 



Colonel Alfked Riiett, 
Who commanded Port Sumter 
(luring the attack in April, 

in old St. Philip's Clmrch. 

394. Another Effort to Take 
Charleston. In April, 1863, the fleet 
of the enemy steamed toward Fort 
Sumter which was commanded by 
Colonel Alfred Rhett. Our soldiers 
on the islands in the harbor turned 
their fire on the leading enemy ship 
and soon forced it to retire. Then 
the second ship of the enemy fleet 
took the lead and got within less than 
a half mile of Fort Sumter when the 
fire of our soldiers forced it to retire 
also. The other ships kept up the fight for a time and then 
dropped out of sight. Our soldiers on the islands and in Fort 
Sumter had defeated the first attempt of the campaign of 1863 
against Charleston. 

395. Campaign to Take Charleston Re-opened. In July 
the campaign to take Charleston was begun again. So many 
South Carolina soldiers had gone to Virginia and to the West 
to fight that there were not enough men left to defend Charles- 
ton. Governor M. L. Bonham, who became governor in 1862 
after Governor Pickens, sent slaves to help build the works 

around the city. In July the Union sol- 
diers appeared and instead of directly at- 
tacking Charleston forced a landing on 
Morris Island. We had few soldiers on 
this island, but for two months they held 
the enemy off. The enemy had ten 
times as many men, but each 
marked by acts of bravery 
troops in resisting them. At 
of this time, they were forced to retire 
General m. l. Bonham, ^^-^^ leave the enemy in possession of Morris 

Second War Governor 

of the State. island. 

day was 

of our 

the end 



Major Stephen Elliott, 
Daring Commander of Fort 
Sumter during the sec- 
ond lialf of the war. 

396. Fort Sumter Attacked. The Unionists now demanded 
the surrender of Fort Sumter. Major Stephen Elliott, the brave 
officer who had succeeded Colonel Rhett 
in command, refused. Then the Union- 
ists made an attack on the fort with a 
fleet of forty barges. "When the barges 
got within a few yards of the fort, ]\Iajor 
Elliott ordered his men to begin firing. 
This they did and some even threw 
stones into the barges, upsetting some 
of them. Elliott had captured over one 
hundred men when the remainder of the 
Unionists turned back. 

397. Fort Sumter in Ruins. The 
Unionists shelled Fort Sumter continu- 
ously all through the winter of 1863 and the spring of 1861. 
The old fort lay a mass of ruins. But the brave defenders 
did not give up. They burrowed under the ruins like wood-rats 
and held to their posts. Under the wreck of the fort they made 
for themselves as comfortable quarters as possible. They had 
bunks for the men not on duty. They had a hospital 
for the sick and wounded and made the whole cheerful by 
whitewashing the walls and keeping everything clean and in 

398. On the Sea Islands. On the sea islands our soldiers 
settled themselves for the winter of 1863-1864. They had always 
to be on guard against attack, but in many ways they had a 
pleasant time. The army food given them was very poor and 
plain, but they were near enough home for boxes and baskets to 
be sent to them. They were often visited by their friends and 
families. It was not unusual to see ladies riding on horseback 
and in carriages about the camp on James Island. Dances were 
given at posts likely to be fired on at any time. There were 
horse races, rabbit hunts and cock fights to keep the soldiers 
amused in their idle hours. 



399. Preparations for Campaign of 1864 in Virginia. 
Anotlier campaign to take Richmond was begun in 1864. The 
command was given to General Ulysses Grant who had led the 
Union army successfully in the West. Grant had under him 

iNSiDD FouT Sumter During tiil ^^ inilr op lb03. 

150,000 men. It was a splendid army, well drilled, handsomely 
clothed, well fed and with plenty of guns and ammunition. 
Money in great sums was spent in fitting out this army. On 
May 4 it began to move. It was a brilliant mass of blue fol- 
lowed by thousands of wagons loaded with luxuries for the sol- 
diers. It was said that this train of wagons in a straight line 
would have stretched out for sixty miles. 

400. The Confederate Army. To fight this gorgeous army 
of 150,000 men moving toward Richmond was "a slender line 
of gray." Lee had in his army less than 60,000 men. These 
soldiers were unpaid and underfed. Each man was supposed to 
get a half pound of pork or salt bacon and a pint of corn meal 
or flour a day, but they seldom got these full rations. There was 
very little sugar and coffee and there was little food to be had 
from the Virginia country, for that section had been stripped 
bare. The clothes of Lee's soldiers were in rags and tatters. 


Many had no shoes or hats and often had to depend on getting 
horses and saddles and ammunition by capturing these from the 
enemy. The sick and wounded Confederate soldiers could be 
given only the poorest and simplest treatments, as medicines 

were very, very scarce. 

401. Grant's Campaign. The 
Unionists' plan was that while Grant 
with his great army moved on Rich- 
mond from the north General B. F, 
Butler, "Beast" Butler, who had pil- 
laged New Orleans, was to approach 
Richmond from the south and destroy 
all of the crops, mills and railroads. 
Butler was opposed at every step and 
several battles took place. In these 

Confederate Flag Over Fort ^cre twO South Carolina brigades, 
SuMTEK After Bombard- ^ , . , 

MENT. Hagood s and Butler s, which had 

just arrived from the sea islands. While "Beast" Butler was 
trying to lay waste the country to the south of Richmond, Grant 
moved on the capital of the Confederacy from the north. His 
campaign lasted one month and he failed to take Richmond. The 
first battle of the campaign was in May and took place in a wood 
known as the Wilderness. It was a victory for the Confederates. 
The second battle was at Spottsylvania and was a victory for 
neither side. McGowan, Kershaw and Jenkins of South Carolina 
with their commands fought in this battle. The losses on both 
sides were frightful. A week later the last battle of the cam- 
paign took place at Cold Harbor. General Lee was in a strong 
position, but Grant ordered an attack anyway. The battle lasted 
less than an hour. The Charleston Light Dragoons fought here 
with desperate valor. It is said that in this battle was the 
bloodiest half hour in American history. Grant lost nearly 
thirteen thousand men during the battle. This battle ended the 
campaign. Grant withdrew, having lost 60,000 men from 
Wilderness to Cold Harbor. This was a greater number than 



Replacing the Flag Over Foet 

Lee had in his entire command at the beginning of the cam- 

402. Siege of Petersburg. Grant then gave up the attempt 
to take Richmond directly and moved to attack Petersburg, a 
town about twenty miles be- 
low Richmond. There fol- 
lowed three days of steady 
fighting, called the Battle of 
Petersburg. Grant lost 
heavily. He found that he 
could not take the town by 
storm so he settled himself 
before Petersburg for a siege. 
The siege lasted through the 
summer of 1864 and the fol- 
lowing winter. The Con- 
federates suffered untold 
hardships. The fighting was 

done in trenches. No one was allowed to leave his place with- 
out permission. From dark to daylight half of the men could 
lie down in the bottom of the trenches and sleep while the other 
half stayed on guard. At dawn day after day the shelling 
would begin. No part of the trenches was safe and there were 
many deaths. Aside from the danger there was awful dis- 
comfort. With each rain, no matter how slight, the trenches 
became soggy and with heavy rains our soldiers stood waist deep 
in water. The trenches became so filthy that by August nearly 
one-half of the men had to be taken out on account of sickness. 
Among the South Carolina troops at Petersburg werei the 
brigades of Kershaw, Elliott and Hagood. 

403. The Trevillian Campaign. AVhile the fighting was go- 
ing on in the trenches at Petersburg, General Grant sent General 
Sheridan into the northern part of Virginia to destroy the 
railroad which connected Richmond with the Shenandoah 
Valley. This valley was the rich farming section where all the 



food came from to feed the Confederate armies. Grant thought 
if the railroad could be destroyed he would starve Lee's army 
and force its surrender in that way. Wade Hampton learned 
of this plan and with only half as many men as Sheridan started 
out to prevent the destruction of the railroad. He came upon 
Sheridan at Trevillian Station. The fighting lasted three days 
and Hampton completely outgeneraled Sheridan. Only a few 
feet of the railroad were destroyed and, after losing more than 
twice as many men as Hampton, Sheridan retreated. 

Confederate Cavalry Camp at Night 

404. Hampton and His Cavalry, In August, 1864, Gen- 
eral Lee placed General Hampton in chief command of the 
cavalry of the army. In the last months of the year he annoyed 
the enemy in every possible way. Once he made a cattle raid 
and brought off 2,468 beeves. He also captured a large quantity 
of the enemy's stores, burned three camps, carried off eleven 
wagons and 304 prisoners. In this raid he marched 100 miles 
in three days. The stores and beeves captured were a godsend 


to the starving Confederates. This is only one of a great many- 
instances of Wade Hampton's services to the Confederate army. 
405. Union Lines Tighten. While the Confederates were 
winning almost every battle in Virginia they were losing the war 
in the West. After the defeat of the Confederate Army of the 
West at Missionary Ridge in Tennessee the army had retreated 
to Georgia. General Grant now sent General William T. Sher- 
man with 100,000 men to defeat this army and to capture At- 
lanta, which was an important base of supplies for the Con- 
federates and also a great railroad center. The campaign lasted 
four months. Though losing heavily in men, Sherman steadily 
drew nearer Atlanta and finally the Confederates were forced 
to retreat and leave the city to the enemy. The Unionists were 
in the very heart of the Confederacy. The people of the South 
did not realize that the war was going against them. To Lee's 
army "erect and defiant, there appeared no reason why the war 
should not go on another four years." No one felt that the 
South would be defeated. The Confederates were winning 
almost every battle in Virginia and they could not realize that 
the Unionists were upon them from the West and that their men 
were exhausted for lack of food and supplies. 


406. Sherman Destroys Atlanta. Sherman entirely de- 
stroyed Atlanta and then began his famous march to the sea. 
He divided his army into four parts and ordered them to march 
in parallel lines and to cover fifteen miles a day. The soldiers 
had orders to destroy all railroads and public property. But 
they did not stop at this. The path of this army was from 
forty to sixty miles broad. Sherman's soldiers swept this path 
clean — burning homes, destroying crops and driving ofif cattle. 
As the Unionists came to Savannah that city was evacuated. 
The enemy had now reached the gateway to lower South 

407. South Carolinians Fighting in North Carolina. When 
a Union fleet sailed into North Carolina waters to take 
Fort Fisher near Wilmington, General Lee sent soldiers to 
the aid of this fort. Among them was General Johnson Hagood 
with his South Carolina brigade. The Confederates fought 
against overpowering numbers and the fort had to be sur- 
rendered. After the surrender of the fort the Confederates held 
their posts below Wilmington for a time but were forced to 
give them up. After destroying everything that they could not 
carry away which would be of value to the enemy, the Con- 
federates abandoned Wilmington. 

408. The End in Sight. It is a curious fact that the 
South did not realize even with the fall of Wilmington that the 
end of the Confederacy was in sight. Every Southern port was 
captured or blockaded. Lee 's army was in a starving condition. 
Sherman stood at the very gateway of South Carolina. The 
Confederate Army of the West had been badly beaten. And 
yet the South did not know that it was whipped. Plans were 




General Joiinson 
Elected Governor of 
South Carolina after 
the war. 

made by the Confederate leaders for a big 
campaign to start in the spring of 1865. 
409. Sherman Marches From Savan- 
nah to Columbia. Sherman's soldiers 
made threats while still in Georgia of what 
they were going to do to South Carolina. 
This was because South Carolina had been 
the first state to secede from the Union 
and to start the war. On entering the 
Palmetto state, Sherman's men began to 
destroy willfully everything in sight. It 
was thought that Sherman would march 
directly to Charleston, that hotbed of seces- 
sion, but he turned toward Columbia, marching through the 
towns and villages of Hardeeville, Grahamville, Gillisonville, 
McPhersonville, Barnwell, Blackville, Midway and Orangeburg. 
All of our men were away fighting. There was no one left in 
South Carolina but women and children and helpless old men. 
From Savannah for eighty miles along the road of the army 
the homes of but two white families were left standing. Cotton 
gins, factories, barns and fences were burned. Provisions were 
destroyed, the crops laid waste and the cattle carried off. In 
many cases, even though mothers begged on their knees, Sher- 
man 's soldiers drove off the cows on which little babies depended 
for milk. The Union soldiers had queer ideas of fun. On many 
plantations, in great merriment, they poured out barrels of 
syrup on the ground, and dumped into it bags of flour and 
grits and sugar so as to spoil the food. They treated the old men 
harshly and insulted the women. They stole the jewelry and 
silver and divided it among themselves. Special vengeance was 
wreaked on the homes of prominent South Carolinians. General 
Jamison's home, with its fine library; "AVoodlands," the home 
of William Gilmore Simms with another fine library; "Mill- 
wood," the home of "Wade Hampton, and other homes too 
numerous to name, were burned. Destroying as they marched, 



the Unionists reached Lexington, after a small battle near 
Orangeburg. At Lexington it was common talk among the 
soldiers that Columbia was to be burned. 


'■*• =0 CORPS 

»•• ••j-'iy CORPS 

Kty Corps 



Map showing the line of march of Sherman's Army 
through South Carolina in 1865. 

410. The Unionists Enter Columbia. On February 16, 
1865, Columbia heard the roar of cannon. On reaching the 
river the enemy began shelling the city. The next day the 
Unionists crossed the river and General Hampton, with a small 
number of soldiers, moved out of the city as the large army of 
the enemy entered. Mayor Goodwyn met Sherman and sur- 
rendered Columbia to him. Sherman promised to protect the 
city, saying to Mayor Goodwyn, ' ' Go home and rest assured that 
your city will be as safe in my hands as if under your control. ' ' 

411. The Burning of Columbia. The Union army entered 
Columbia and encamped ou the streets and in vacant houses. 


Almost immediately they began to break into stores and ware- 
lu)uses, taking from these what money and jewelry they could 
find and scattering the rest of the goods. The streets of the 
city swarmed with blue-coated soldiers. Toward evening the 
soldiers became more and more noisy and unruly and every- 
where Columbians were threatened with their coming fate. In 
some cases warnings to escape were given citizens by kindly 
soldiers. Thus it was not a surprise when at dark three 

Looking North Down Main Street in Columbia After Sherman 
Burned the City. 

rockets went up and, at this signal, fire broke out almost simul- 
taneously in several quarters of the city. The Columbians 
brought out the fire engines and hose but the Union soldiers 
stopped them from using these by disabling the engines and 
cutting up the hose with their swords. As the fire made greater 
headway the soldiers became wilder and wilder. A perfect 
carnival of robbery followed. They made no concealment of 
setting houses on fire. Some ran in and set fire to lace curtains. 
Others threw coals of fire into the beds. 

As the fire became general the streets were filled with terror- 
stricken women and children who ran about with their clothes 
and valuables tied up in sheets. The Union soldiers were now 
crazed by the liquors they had stolen from the cellars of the 
city. They snatched away the bundles from the women. One 
eye-witness in Columbia on that terrible niglit in February, 
1865, says that he heard the cries of distress from women and 


children pursued by the soldiers, saw them pull rings from the 
women's fingers, jerk earrings out of their ears, and tear off 
their clothing. 

Numbers of the Columbians made their way to the grounds 
of the State Insane Asylum, the loyal slaves following them 
with bundles. Soon the Asylum grounds were dotted with these 
homeless Columbians, who spent the night shivering under the 
trees. The morning, of February 18 dawned upon a scene of 
sad devastation. The capital of South Carolina lay in smoking 

412. Sherman Marches From the State. Sherman took 
up his march again after burning Columbia. He went toward 
North Carolina through Winnsboro, Camden and Cheraw, leav- 
ing behind him a country utterly ruined by the wanton destruc- 
tion of his soldiers. From Cheraw he went into North Carolina. 
Those parts of South Carolina crossed by Sherman's army suf- 
fered almost as terribly as Belgium did from the Germans in 
the "World War. 

413. Confederates Leave Richmond. At daybreak of April 2, 
1865, General Grant ordered a general attack on the lines of 
Petersburg. Before night the battle was over and the Con- 
federates had lost 12,000 prisoners. On the same day Lee 
ordered the Confederates to march out of Richmond as they 
could no longer hold it. Indescribable confusion followed. 
Nine ships in the river were burned so they would not fall into 
the hands of flie Unionists. Tobacco and cotton warehouses 
were set on fire. All the citizens who could do so left Richmond. 
On the next day the Unionists took possession of the capital of 
the Confederacy. 

414. Surrender at Appomattox. Lee tried to escape with 
his army, but he was handicapped by the fact that his men 
were starving. He had to stop to gather food and was caught 
as he was crossing the Appomattox River on April 8. Here his 
army fought a last desperate battle. Lee had less than 35,000 
ragged, weary and starved men against 100,000 well fed, well 


equipped and fresh soldiers. The Confederates fought fiercely 
but when reinforcements came up for the enemy Lee had to 
raise the white flag in token of surrender. The war between the 
United States and the Confederate States was ended by Lee's 
surrender to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. 


415. The State in Ruins. None of the Confederate states 
paid so dearly for the war, in proportion to its means, as did 
South Carolina. Out of 146,000 white men its loss in killed 
and disabled was 40,000. South Carolina had in 1860 only 
40,000 white voters. The war was costly to South Carolina not 
only in the lives of its men but also in its property. Its people 
lost $200,000,000 worth of slaves when the negroes were freed. 
The assets of its banks, all of which were lost, amounted to 
$5,000,000. The burning and seizure of cotton meant a loss of 
$20,000,000. It is estimated that of the $400,000,000 of prop- 
erty in South Carolina in 1861 little more than $50,000,000 re- 
mained in 1865. Hence the property lost by the State and its 
people during the war reached the staggering sum of $350,000,000. 

416. Towns and Country Suffer. Charleston had been be- 
sieged from 1861 to 1865. Large parts of the city were in ruins 
from the constant shelling. Also portions of the city had taken 
fire when deserted at the approach of Sherman. In Columbia 
eighty-six squares of the city had been burned, consuming in 
all 1,386 buildings. The destruction of Columbia had caused 
great loss to the entire State, as, thinking that Columbia would 
be strongly defended, thousands of citizens from various parts 
of the State had hurried there and brought with them their 
valuables, which suffered from either theft or fire. With Sher- 
man's march through the rural parts of the State, the country 
had been left like a desert. The district around Beaufort had 
been held by the enemy since 1862, and had consequently suf- 
fered from wanton destruction. 

417. Soldiers Return to Their Homes. Several days after 
Lee's surrender rumors reached the Confederate soldiers in 




North Carolina of the downfall of the Confederacy. Shortly 
afterwards they returned to their homes. One poor Confederate 
remarked dolefully to a Northerner, "We wore ourselves out 
whipping you." They were truly worn out. When the South 
Carolinians reached their 
homes, ragged and in starving 
condition, it was to find their 
houses in ruins, their larders 
empty and their crops de- 
stroyed. General Gillmore, 
with his headquarters at 
Hilton Head, was in com- 
mand of the State. Governor 
Andrew G. Magrath had been 
imprisoned by the Yankees 
and was held in Savannah. 
All officers elected by the 
people had been thrown out 
of office. 

418. President Lincoln's Plan. It was President Lincoln's 
idea that the Confederate states should be restored to the Union 
under terms he fixed. The Southern states were to declare the 
negro slaves free, lay down their arms and accept provisional 
governors. The president ofi^ered pardon to all except men who 
had been leaders during the war. Lincoln was assassinated on 
April 14, 1865. Andrew Johnson, vice-president of the United 
States, became president. Johnson set himself to carrying out 
the plan of Lincoln. On May 29, 1865, President Johnson issued 
a proclamation granting pardon to the Confederates. Pardon, 
however, was denied to thirteen classes of men, among whom 
were all who had held rank above colonel in the Confederate 
army, all officers who had received their education at West Point 
or at the United States Naval Academy, all who had left seats 
in Congress to aid their states in the war, and all who had 
voluntarily fought in the war whose taxable property was over 

All that Sherman left of "Millwood," 
General Hampton's Home. 


$20,000. Meetings were held in South Carolina at which resolu- 
tions were adopted expressing a desire for a place in the Union 
and for the re-establishment of the State government. Commit- 
tees were sent to Washington to ask that a provisional governor 
be appointed. President Johnson chose Benjamin F. Perry of 
Greenville to be provisional governor. 

419. State's Government Rebuilt. Freedom of the negroes 
became a fact by June, 1865. "What was called the "Freedmen's 
Bureau" was established by order of General Gillmore for the 
protection of the rights of the freed negro slaves. Governor 
Perry directed county and state officers to resume their duties 
and called for an election of delegates to a Convention to carry 
out the terms of President Johnson's proclamation for restora- 
tion into the Union. Pardons were granted in large numbers 
so that delegates would be eligible to the Convention which met 
in Columbia in September, 1865. This Convention prohibited 
the holding of slaves and called a session of the legislature. 
The elections were held, and James L. Orr chosen governor. 
In November the regular session of the legislature was held. 
The important work of this body consisted of making laws to 
establish relations between the negro and the white man. By 
these acts the negro was to have the right to own property, to 
make contracts, and to receive protection under the law. Vari- 
ous acts granting rights were passed and then very severe laws 
were enacted for the protection of the white man against the 
negro. These laws, called the "Black Code," caused indignation 
in the North. 

420. South Carolina's Position. South Carolina intended 
to accept quietly the results of the war, but had no intention 
of submitting to negro rule. The State was willing to give the 
negro equal protection under the law, but was decidedly unwill- 
ing to allow him to vote and sit on juries. The negroes were in 
such large majority that giving the vote to them was not to be 
considered. The State had a tremendous problem to face in the 
sudden freeing of thousands of irresponsible, uneducated, un- 


moral, and, in many cases, brutish Africans. The people of 
South Carolina felt that they were a danger and that harsh 
laws were necessary to hold them in bounds. Connecticut re- 
fused in 1865 to allow the negroes of that state the right to vote. 
The South did not think that the North would force it to give 
the ballot to the freed slaves. 

421. Negro Troops Cause Excitement. As was to be ex- 
pected the months since the defeat of the Confederates had been 
very difficult ones for South Carolinians. At first Federal 
garrisons in the State had been made up of white soldiers. Soon, 
however, negro troops came. These troops were for the most 
part insolent and arrogant. In some cases their conduct was so 
bad that riots seemed certain. The presence of negro soldiers 
in authority so excited the freed slaves that they lost their heads. 
There occurred terrible cases of assault and murder. The negro 
troops became finally so obnoxious that there was a general 
feeling of relief when toward the end of 1865 they were removed 
to the coast. Their removal undoubtedly prevented bloody race 

422. Congress Spoils President's Plans. The Southern 
states had apparently re-entered the Union by the time Congress 
met in December, 1865. They only lacked members of that 
body. Congress quickly showed that it had no intention of per- 
mitting the South to stay in the Union under the plans of 
Lincoln and Johnson. Congress was determined to teach the 
South a lesson for its "rebellion." Its policy soon proved that 
it looked upon the war as one fought by the North, not to save 
the Union, but to conquer the South. This mean-spirited 
Congress severely criticized President Johnson and declared 
that what he had done to restore the South to the Union should 
not go into effect. Congress refused to allow members elected 
by Southern states to take their seats. A committee was ap- 
pointed by Congress to investigate the true condition of affairs 
in the "rebel" states. This committee, instead of going to the 
"rebel" states to investigate, held meetings in Washington. 


The investigations were made through officers of the Freedmen's 
Bureau. In June, the committee reported to Congress that the 
bitterness and defiance of the Southern states towards the Union 
were unequalled in the history of the world, and that in its 
opinion the burden rested with these states to show that they 
had a claim to be reinstated in the Union. Congress then offered 
to the South for ratification, as a condition to entering the 
Union, the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution of the 
United States. This amendment gave the negroes the right to 
vote and sit on juries. The Southern states, with the exception 
of Tennessee, refused to ratify it. 

423. South Under Military Law. The report of its com- 
mittee and the refusal of the Southern states to ratify the four- 
teenth amendment led Congress to pass an act dividing the 
Southern states into five military districts, with an officer of the 
Federal army in charge of each. The act said that it was 
"necessary that peace and good order should be enforced in 
said states until loyal and republican state governments can be 
legally established." President Johnson vetoed the act. 
Congress immediately passed it over his veto and it became a law. 

424. Reconstruction Laws. The reconstruction laws made 
by Congress declared that before a person could be a voter he 
must swear that he had never held a public office and afterwards 
engaged in "insurrection or rebellion against the United 
States." The laws required that the Southern states should 
remain under military control until republican state constitu- 
tions were adopted and the fourteenth amendment to the United 
States Constitution was ratified. The enforcement of this 
amendment would mean that negroes would have the full right 
of suffrage and that they would be entitled to sit on juries. The 
intention of Congress in passing the fourteenth amendment was 
not to secure rights for the negroes but to humble the proud 
South to the dust. 

425. Officers Removed. In Mareli, 1867, Major General 
Daniel Sickles of the United States Army, under the provisions 


of the Reconstruction Acts, took command of the second military- 
district, made up of North and South Carolina. South Carolina 
was divided into eleven military divisions, each under the com- 
mand of an officer of the United States Army. In April, General 
Sickles issued what was called order No. 10, by which negroes 
were made eligible as jurors. Judge A. P. Aldrich, in holding 
court in Edgefield, refused to obey this order and was promptly 
removed from office. Gradually county officials were removed 
and replaced by military appointees. In Charleston the city 
officials were one by one thrown out and replaced by 
Northerners and negroes. The State was being dealt with as 
a conquered province ruled by the soldiers of a foreign power. 

426. Coming of the "Carpet Baggers." South Carolina 
was overrun with Northern and foreign adventurers, negroes, 
alleged preachers and missionaries, who came to the conquered 
province for the "pickings" to be found. So meager were their 
possessions that it was said that they brought all their belong- 
ings in a carpet bag, and were therefore known to the people 
of the State as "carpet baggers." They swooped down upon 
South Carolina like hungry hawks and under the protection of 
the military authorities took the offices of the State and enriched 
themselves by fraud and robbery. With these adventurers some 
corruptible white South Carolinians joined hands. Such men 
were called "renegades" or "scalawags." The "carpet- 
baggers" and the "renegades" made common cause in setting 
the negro up in power with the purpose, not of benefiting the 
ignorant negro, but of filling their own pockets. 

427. The Republican Convention. A general registration 
of voters was called for by order of General Sickles. The regis- 
tration showed 78,982 negroes and only 46,346 whites eligible 
to vote. So many white South Carolinians were debarred from 
voting in Beaufort, as a glaring instance, that the registration 
showed 2,500 negroes allowed the ballot and only 65 whites. An 
election was held to vote for or against the holding of a State 
convention as was directed by the Reconstruction Acts. Of 



course, the majority was for the Convention, which met in 
Charleston in January, 1868. It is said that never in a civil- 
ized country was there any equal to this body of law-makers. 
It was composed of (1) native whites, many of whom were of 

ill repute ("scalawags" or 
"renegades") ; (2) Union of- 
ficers; (3) former slaves; and 
(4) Northern and foreign ad- 
venturers ("carpet baggers"). 
Of the 124 delegates 44 were 
not natives of the state. Of 
these foreigners some came from 
Denmark, Ireland, Dutch 
Guinea, and other countries. 
There were few white men of 
good repute in the State who 
liad not fought for the Con- 
federacy and in denying a great 
portion of these the ballot the 
real intelligence, virtue and 
wealth of South Carolina was 
excluded from the Convention. 
428. Convention's Constitution Approved by Congress. 
The Convention, after long and heated arguments as to the pay 
of its members, drew up a Constitution, by which the right to 
vote was given every male citizen of 21 years, or over, not de- 
barred by the Reconstruction Acts of Congress. It was not made 
necessary to own property or to have an education in order to 
vote. Slavery was prohibited and extensive and costly provi- 
sion was made for the education of the negro children. The 
schools for whites were opened to negro children. A Conven- 
tion of Democrats was held in Columbia at which a protest was 
made to Congress against this radical Republican Constitution. 
This Convention declared that the Constitution excluded the 
best men of the state from voting, that it forced white children 

Monument to the Women of the 
confedeitacy euected by the 
People of the State at Columbia. 


to go to school with negroes, placed a system of education on the 
broken state which it could not support, and allowed the 
ignorant to rule the intelligent. The Convention of Democrats 
also declared that South Carolinians would not submit to negro 
rule. An election was held for the ratification of the Republican 
Constitution. A majority of voters having voted for it, Congress 
was notified. Despite the protest from the Democratic Conven- 
tion, Congress approved the Constitution. 

429. Radical Supremacy. The stamp of Federal approval 
having been given to the Constitution made by the Republican 
Convention, there followed an election of a Radical or Republi- 
can legislature under ^t. The Democrats only succeeded in 
choosing twenty members of the body. This Republican legisla- 
ture met in July, 1868. Its first act was to ratify the fourteenth, 
amendment, the twenty Democrats voting against the ratification. 
Upon this action of the legislature. Congress readmitted South 
Carolina to the Union. The State had been restored to the 
Union by the vote of the negroes, "carpet-baggers," and 
"renegades." Governor Orr was removed and General Robert 
K. Scott of Ohio took his place. The Federal military officers 
turned the control of the State over to Scott. Passing from 
under military rule which for a little more than a year had been 
enforced at the point of the bayonet, South Carolina started 
upon its dark period. 

430. Radical Legislature of South Carolina. The legis- 
lature elected for the sessions of 1868, 1869 and the first half of 
1870 was composed of seventy-eight negroes and forty-six whites. 
The taxes paid by all the legislators amounted to $635.23. The 
body consisted principally of "carpet-baggers," "renegades" 
and negroes. Some members could only write their names in a 
mechanical fashion. Never as a whole was such gross ignorance 
displayed in a legislative body. The results of such an in- 
competent legislature were exactly what was foreseen. At the 
end of its session in 1870 the state debt had increased from 
$5,407,306.27 to $14,833,349.17. At the close of the year 1870, 


all counties were in debt except Anderson and Fairfield. The 
average annual tax for some years before the war had been less 
than $550,000. In 1869, the taxes amounted to $1,764,357.41. 
The public school system was grossly inefficient. The selling 
of votes was common. In the legislature bribery and graft were 
rife. As the election of 1870 approached, a negro militia was 
raised and guns issued to them so that they could help the 
Republicans carry the election. This militia was very useful 
in the campaign. Governor Scott was re-elected. 

431. Two More Years of Radical Rule. The taste of the 
second radical legislature was more luxurious than that of the 
first. For the session of 1870-1871, tl;e expenses were $679,- 
071.83. In the journals of the body we find bills for chandeliers, 
ranging from $1,500 to $2,500 apiece; window curtains, $500 to 
$1,500 ; sofas, $150 to $175 ; Gothic chairs, $70 to $90. Bonds 
of the State were issued to cover the cost of such expenditures as 
these and to perpetrate frauds on a still larger scale. Money 
from the sale of bonds went into the pockets of the members of 
the legislature and its hangers-on. The insane asylum was kept 
open with money given by citizens after the radicals had stolen 
the money which should have been used for the care of patients 
in the asylum. The legislature did not provide any money to 
support the elaborate school system which it had created. The 
state debt amounted to $22,371,306 in October, 1871 — over four 
times as much as when the radicals took over the government. 

432. Taxpayers Protest. The increase in the state debt so 
aroused the taxpayers that they called a convention, which rec- 
ommended to the people of the State resisting of the payment 
of the fraudulent bonds. Also an appeal was made to the legis- 
lature for the passage of an election law by which the 60,000 tax- 
paying voters would have some representatives in the legislature 
with the 90,000 voters who paid no taxes. This appeal had no 

433. Attempt to Enforce Negro Equality. Early in his 
first term, Governor Scott started the custom of giving official 


receptions at his mansion, to which blacks and whites of both 
sexes were invited. Negroes were put on the board of trustees 
of the South Carolina University, and a new board was created 
for the insane asylum, which adopted the policy of non-separa- 
tion of the races at the institution. 


434. The Ku-Klux Klan. Secret organizations of white 
men were formed in nearly all the conquered states of the South. 
The men in these organizations were determined to hold the freed 
slaves in check and to fight the evil-doing radicals. These secret 
organizations were called the Ku-Klux Klan. In South Carolina, 
the military officers had given way to Scott and his government, 
but the Federal soldiers were held in the State to enforce the will 
of the radicals. The Ku-Klux Klan secretly decided to oppose 
the radicals as well as to protect the women and children of the 
State. The Ku-Klux met only at night. They were always 
mounted on horses and wore caps and masks to conceal their 
faces and long white coats which covered them and fell down 
over their horses. The sight of these ghostly riders galloping 
by in the night was a very terrifying one to the superstitious 
negro. A visit from the Ku-Klux was sufficient in most cases 
to turn him away from his evil doing. 

435. The Ku-Klux at Work. In South Carolina, the Ku- 
Klux Klan was quiet until the latter part of 1870. It would have 
remained inactive but for the arming of the negroes and the 
conduct of the negro state militia. The militiamen became more 
and more intolerable in their bearing. House burning was more 
frequent and indignities of all kinds were inflicted upon the 
whites. After the October elections, the conduct of these armed 
negroes grew worse and worse. Women were insulted on the 
streets. The negroes in the town of Union first called down 
upon themselves the punishment of the Klan. In January, 1871, 
an ex-Confederate soldier named Stevens was driving a wagon 
containing barrels of whisky and was stopped on the public road 
by a company of negro militia who demanded the whiskey. 




Upon his refusal, he was seized, beaten and finally shot to death. 
The whites were naturally alarmed at this open assassination. 
The Ku-Klux immediately proceeded to disarm the negro militia. 
The thirteen members of the company who had murdered 
Stevens were lodged in jail at Union. The attitude of the 
negroes in Union became so threatening and so openly sym- 
pathetic with the murderers that the Ku-Klux went to the jail 


The State Hoise at (Julimbia. 

at night, seized two of the negroes and shot them. A month 
later an order came to remove the prisoners to Columbia and 
the Ku-Klux, feeling that it was simply a scheme to get the 
negroes away, visited the jail again. The remainder of the 
negroes were taken from the jail and shot to death. 

436. United States Punishes Ku-Klux. The radical gov- 
ernment became concerned over the activity of the Ku-Klux in 
the counties where the negro militia was troublesome. Governor 
Scott offered to co-operate with the whites in restoring order, and 
all the militia companies in the disturbed counties were finally 


disbanded. After the Ku-Klux raids had ceased for some 
months, which they did as soon as the negroes became quiet, 
Congress started an investigation. Nine counties of South Caro- 
lina were declared in a state of rebellion, and United States 
troops were sent to occupy them. These counties suffered in 
some instances more from the tyranny of the Federal officers 
than from the brutishness of the negro militia. Without proof 
in most cases, and always without warrant, citizens were thrown 
into jail, often on the accusations of negroes that they had been 
active as Ku-Klux. In one of the rebellious counties — York — 
there were 195 citizens confined in jail. In Union there were 
about two hundred arrests and several hundred in Spartanburg. 
Some citizens were carried to Columbia for trial. These trials 
were farces. All the accused white men were declared guilty and 
fined. All were given terms of imprisonment ranging from 
three months to five years. 

437. "The Robber Governor." In 1872 Franklin J. Moses, 
Jr., of Sumter, became radical governor of South Carolina. By 
this time the State was prostrate. Negroes were in full control 
of the government. The majority in the legislature was utterly 
corrupt. Seats in Congress were openly bought. The rotten- 
ness and dishonesty of the negro government was plain to every- 
one. No white man felt that his life or property was safe. 
President Grant, who had succeeded Johnson, was sympathetic 
toward the negro government. Federal troops were always at its 
disposal. The courts of the State were corrupted, the juries 
packed and perjury common. With the election of Moses, the 
state government started a perfect orgy of stealing. Moses was 
the worst of the radical governors. He began his administration 
as a poor man and in two years had enriched himself by the 
numerous frauds in which the government engaged. The ex- 
travagance of the administration was unsurpassed. For in- 
stance, "a room in the State House was fitted up wherein to 
serve wines, liquors, eatables, and cigars. Liquors and cigars 
were sent to the houses of members and their friends and also 


to the committee rooms. There were various bills for furnishing 
eatables, wines, liquors, and cigars to different legislative com- 
mittees — one dealer testifying that he presented a single bill for 
$1,800 and received therefor a pay certificate." 

438. Assembling of Taxpayers. In February, 1874, the 
taxpayers of the State assembled again in Columbia. A protest 
was made against the frauds of the government — which frauds 
were being paid for by the taxpayers who had no voice in the 
government. Another appeal was made to Congress. A careful 
statement of the unlawful expenditures of the legislature was 
made and an account was given of the frauds and plundering. 
It was stated that prominent members of the legislature had 
openly avowed that the taxes w^ould be raised so high that lands 
would have to be sold at public auction because the owners could 
not pay taxes. A committee of prominent South Carolinians 
was sent to Washington to lay this appeal before President 
Grant. The president received these gentlemen with unpardon- 
able rudeness, and Congress, with its usual hostility, afforded 
no relief. A minority of congressmen, however, protested against 
the action of Congress. This minority begged Congress at least 
to send a committee to investigate conditions in South Carolina. 
The minority declared "the cry of that outraged, helpless and 
suffering people has reached our hearts as well as our under- 
standing. That once prosperous and beautiful State is on the 
verge of ruin. A horde of thieves and robbers, worse than any 
that ever infested any civilized community on earth, have her 
by \he throat and are fast sucking her life-blood. Three hundred 
thousand of her citizens, descendants of those who fought and 
won with our fathers the battles of American liberty, are crying 
to Congress for redress — for help. To refuse their request is to 
drive them to despair and ruin. ' ' 

439. Chamberlain Made Governor. In 1874 Daniel H. 
Chamberlain was elected to succeed Moses as governor. His 
administration was the best of the radical governors. He 
openly accused the legislature of corruption and called for the 


betterment of conditions in the penitentiary and asylum. He 
warned the counties against further deficiences in their 
treasuries, and started an investigation into the condition of the 
state treasury. In December, 1875, the legislature chose Frank- 
lin J. Moses, Jr., former governor, and W. J. Whipper, a 
Northern negro of bad repute, as circuit judges. The election 
of these two men was condemned throughout the State. All over 
the State public meetings were held denouncing the legislature 
and declaring that seating of the infamous men on the bench 
would be resisted to the end. Governor Chamberlain refused 
to sign the commissions of Whipper and Moses. For this the 
governor was commended by the Democrats of the State. It 
looked as if, in the coming election of 1876, he would have the 
support of the Democrats for re-election to the gubernatorial 

440. The Democrats Organize. In January, 1876, the cen- 
tral committee of the Democratic party met in Columbia and 
issued an address to the Democrats of the State. The address 
called for organization of the Democrats for the campaign of 
1876, and begged that they apply themselves to politics and save 
the state from the Radicals. A Democratic club was organized 
in each county. Among the Democrats there were two distinct 
views about the Democratic nominee for governor. Some thouglit 
that the organization should support Chamberlain, as with him 
at the head of the ticket there would be a better chance of 
electing Democrats to the other offices. Others thought that the 
nominations should be for straight-out Democrats from governor 
to coroners. Notwithstanding this division of opinion concern- 
ing the nominee there was general agreement to deliver the State 
at any cost from the control of the negroes and Radicals. 

441. The Hamburg Riot. In July, 1876, an incident 
occurred which settled the question of the Democratic nominee 
for governor. The village of Hamburg in Aiken County had had 
for several years a company of negro militia, who were well pro- 
vided with arms and ammunition. On riding through the streets 



of Hamburg one day in July, two citizens of Edgefield were 
insulted by these negro soldiers. When a warrant was taken out 
for their arrest, the negroes threatened to lynch the citizens 
whom they had insulted. On the day fixed for the trial, the 
whites, with General Matthew C. Butler of Edgefield as spokes- 
man, asked the negroes to apologize for their conduct and dis- 
arm. The negroes refused and began firing. They fortified 
themselves in a small brick drill hall and before any of their 
number was hurt, young McKie Meriwether, a citizen of Edge- 
field, was killed. A small cannon was brought from Augusta. 
The negroes were forced from the building, one of their number 
being killed. The rest were captured and that night five of them 
were shot to death as an example to the remainder. This sum- 
mary proceeding was the result, in General Butler's language, 
of the practice "of insulting and outraging white people, which 
the negroes had adopted there for several years." Upon the 
statement of the negroes of the district, Governor Chamberlain 
formed his judgment of the Hamburg 
riot. He appealed to the president 
for troops. This action decided the 
Democrats not to support him for 

442. Democrats at Work. In 
August, at the Democratic Conven- 
tion, General Matthew C. Bulter 
nominated General Wade Hampton 
for governor. General Hampton was 
then unanimously chosen by the 
Convention, We have told of this 
great soldier's deeds during the War 
Between the Sections. The Democrats 
all over the State went to work for General Wade Hampton, 

Hampton. Every white man enrolled '"^.L.^.ferlho^r^if t'L n^n!!!: 
for the election and great efforts were ''"ts in istg when control 

^ n n 1 "*^ the State was won from 

made to enroll all the negro men Avho the Radicals. 




' i^B ^^' 




had been loyal to the whites into clubs officered by negro men. 
It was announced that any oppression of these negro Democrats 
by the Republicans would surely lead to bloodshed. Knowing 
that the Republicans would stoop to anything to gain the 
election, the Democratic clubs provided themselves with arms. 
Some military organizations were formed, called rifle and sabre 
clubs. The white people, with the state government hostile, 
were forced to look to these clubs for protection. 

443. The Hampton Campaign. The campaign to elect 
Hampton opened on September 2nd at Anderson. There fol- 
lowed enthusiastic meetings in each county. The women of the 
State made for the men of their families red shirts, which were 
worn at these meetings. The clubs came to the meetings in 
military order, each man mounted and wearing a red shirt. 
General Hampton was escorted to flower-decked stands by red- 
shirted committeemen, while young women sang songs and 
scattered flowers in his path. Every good man, woman, and 
child felt that in Hampton was the deliverance of the State. 
As election day approached, the Democrats became more and 
more active. Getting Hampton elected was the business of the 
worthy citizens of South Carolina. Farms were left untended, 
stores were closed, and every Democrat went to work for the re- 
demption of the State. Each one set himself the task of winning 
as many negro votes for Hampton as possible. Even the children 
took up the slogan "Hurrah for Hampton" and this call became 
the "battle cry of the white people of South Carolina in the 
fight to rid the State of negro rule. ' ' 

444. Rioting. A white man was killed and five wounded in 
Charleston in protecting some negro Democrats from a party of 
Republicans, who were trying to break up the meeting. Again 
the negroes tried to interfere at the joint Democratic and Re- 
publican meeting at Cainhoy in Charleston County. The 
negroes began firing and six white men were killed and sixteen 
wounded. Only one negro was killed. At Ellenton in Barnwell 
County the most serious riot occurred. Two negro burglars 


entered a home in the owner's absence and, when the owner's 
wife resisted, beat her and her little son severely. One of the 
negroes was caught, confessed and told who the other negro 
was. A constable with a posse began a search for the negro, 
whereupon the negroes of the district massed in a swamp. 
Matters went from bad to worse, and in three days two whites 
were killed and eight wounded. The number of negroes killed 
is not known, but it is estimated that between 80 and 125 lost 
their lives. After the appearance of a company of United 
States troops, it was agreed that the whites and the negroes 
were to disperse. 

445. Federal Troops Again in the State. Governor Cham- 
berlain himself admitted that the responsibility for the riots was 
upon the Republicans, but, despite this, he ordered the disband- 
ing of the rifle and sabre clubs formed among the Democrats. 
It must be remembered that these clubs were the only protection 
of the white people. President Grant laid the responsibility of 
the riots upon the clubs and also ordered them broken up. He 
further ordered the available force (which was about 5,000 men) 
of the military division to report to Columbia. A company or 
more of these United States troops were placed at each county 
seat. In Barnwell and Aiken alone there were upwards of two 
hundred arrests of Democrats made by the Federal authorities. 
Only a few of these Democrats ever came to trial and those tried 
were not convicted. 

446. Hampton Elected. There was no blood shed on elec- 
tion da3\ The polls were in control of the Republican party. 
The troops remained inactive in their camps. The Democrats 
worked unceasingly all day, chiefly concerning themselves with 
getting the negro men to vote for Hampton, and with seeing that 
they were not harmed for doing so. Conditions in the State were 
so frightful that the Democrats were determined to get the gov- 
ernment back into their hands by any means. It must be con- 
fessed that in many cases the means used could be justified only 
by the ends sought. The count of the ballots showed Hampton 



elected governor. The elections for the House of Representatives 
returned sixty-four Democrats and sixty Republicans ; for the 
Senate, fifteen Democrats and eighteen Republicans, thus giving 
the Democrats a majority of one vote on joint ballot. The news 
arrived shortly after that Rutherford B. Hayes had been elected 
president of the United States to succeed U. S. Grant. There 
was great rejoicing among the Democrats over the outcome of 
the state election. The Republicans declared that the Democrats 
had won by fraud. 

447. The Two Governments. The 
Republicans asserted that there had been 
frauds in the Edgefield and Laurens elec- 
tions. The object of this was to throw out 
these counties, which would give the 
majority in the House and Senate to the 
Republicans. Governor Chamberlain de- 
clared that he had been re-elected. The 
General Assembly convened on November 
28, 1876. At Governor Chamberlain's re- 
quest President Grant ordered troops sent 
for use in the State House. These troops 
were placed under the command of John 
B. Dennis, a corrupt man, who had been connected with some 
of the most brazen frauds in the State. A list of members who 
should be allowed to enter was given Dennis — this list excluding 
the Edgefield and Laurens delegates. The sixty-four Democratic 
delegates marched in a body to the House, the Edgefield mem- 
bers leading and the Laurens members coming next. These 
were refused admission. Whereupon, the entire body of Demo- 
crats retired. There was naturally great excitement among the 
people. From the steps of the State House General Hampton 
begged the crowd to keep quiet and to preserve the peace. The 
Democratic members proceeded to Carolina Hall, where they 
organized. William H. Wallace of Union was made speaker, 
and the body of Democratic legislators was known as the 
"Wallace House." 

General William H. 


Speaker of the Wallace 



448. Court Decides for Democrats. The Wallace House on 
November 30 marched boldly into the State House. The Re- 
publicans had organized with E. W. M. Mackey as speaker. 
This body was known as the "Mackey House." For several 
days the two houses remained seated day and night, both claim- 
ing rightful possession. On Sunday night, December 3, the 
Democrats learned that a plot was on foot to bring what was 
known as the "Hunkidori Club," composed of about a hundred 
negroes and low whites, into the hall of the House and eject the 
Democratic members from Laurens and Edgefield. Telegrams 
were sent all over the State, and by Monday night, 5,000 Demo- 
crats had arrived in Columbia. To prevent bloodshed, the 
Wallace House withdrew from the State House. Proceedings 
were started in the Supreme Court to decide which was the law- 
ful House. The court declared for the Democrats. Despite this 
decision, the Republicans held on. They had an inauguration 
and proclaimed Chamberlain governor. 

449. The State Redeemed. In the spring of 1877, the con- 
test was transferred to Washington. Committees from the 
Chamberlain party and from the lawful Democratic House pre- 
sented a memorial to President Hayes and to Congress. Presi- 
dent Hayes declared Hampton governor and the Democratic 
House lawfully elected. The Federal troops were removed from 
the State House on April 10, 1877, and the Wallace House took 
possession. Governor Hampton was inaugurated governor. 
After eight years of negro and Radical supremacy, backed by 
Federal troops. South Carolina had overthrown the usurpers 
and taken possession of the government. 


450, Conditions After Reconstruction. After ten years 
of the evil Radical government South Carolina was a badly 
crippled state. No other Southern state suffered as much from 
war and reconstruction as did South Carolina. With a voting 
population of 40,000 South Carolina had furnished 75,000 fight- 
ing men to the Confederacy, which meant that great numbers 
of boys under age fought in the war. Many of these soldiers 
were disabled from wounds and unfit for labor in the fields. 
As South Carolina was almost solely an agricultural state, there 
was little for men to do besides work on farms. The freeing of 
the slaves was a heavy financial loss as much of the wealth of 
the State was invested in slaves. Add to this the hardships of 
ten years of Radical government and the State was almost bank- 
rupt. The money from the county treasuries had been stolen, 
the state government was deeply in debt, the school and college 
teachers had not been paid, and taxes were so high that there 
were few people able to pay them. These were the conditions 
South Carolinians had to face when they took the government 
from the hands of the "carpet baggers" and negroes. 

451. How^ the Plantations Were Worked. An arrange- 
ment called "share cropping" was made with the freed slaves 
whereby crops could be planted. Under this arrangement the 
crops were made on shares, the white man furnishing the land, 
mules and sometimes fertilizer and the negro furnishing the 
labor. The old plantation life where one master cultivated huge 
tracts of land raising enormous crops with the aid of his slaves 
became a thing of the past. Small farms, worked by tenants, 
took the place of the great plantations. The majority of tenant 
"share croppers" were "one horse farmers" or "two horse 



farmers. ' ' Many of the great plantations were cut up into small 
tracts and sold or rented. The old order had passed. No 
longer were there "lords of the land" who, following the 
example of their English ancestors, had made of South Carolina 
one of the most aristocratic sections of the United States. 

452. Legislature Helps In Rebuilding State. The first 
legislature after Reconstruction w^ent at once to work and made 
some laws very helpful to the people. One of the most important 
of these was the "stock law." This required all pasture land 
to be fenced, except in a few sections of the State. Up to this 
time cattle had run at large everywhere and farmers had been 
forced to fence their fields. The fencing of large fields was very 
expensive and made the profits from the crops smaller. Thus 
the law requiring cattle raisers to keep their stock within fenced 
pastures was a great advantage to farmers. Next, the legisla- 
ture passed what was known as the "lien law." This law 
enabled the farmers to get credit by giving a lien or mortgage 
on the crops they were raising. The lien law benefited the 
farmers greatly. They were practically bankrupt from the 
war and Reconstruction and had no money to live on while the 
crops were growing. The legislature secured money to keep up 
the schools and also ordered that convicts in the penitentiary be 
hired out to men or companies so as to be self-supporting. This 
legislature was notable for its constructive laws at a time when 
wise law-makers were most needed. 

453. Prosperity. Hampton was elected for a second term as 
governor, but in 1879 he was elected to the United States Senate 
and resigned the office of governor. Lieutenant Governor W. D. 
Simpson succeeded him as governor but resigned to take the 
office of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina. 
Lieutenant Governor Thomas B. Jeter became governor for the 
unexpired term. During the four years following Reconstruction 
South Carolina had made remarkable progress. The expense 
of running the state government had been greatly reduced and 
consequently taxes were much lower. Railroads were built. 



New towns were settled. The schools were improved. There 
were few citizens in South Carolina who were not earnestly 
working to bring conditions back to normal. 

Cotton Mill in the Up-Country. 

454. Cotton Manufacturing. Cotton was still ''king" in 
South Carolina during this period and, in fact, cotton is "king" 
now, the planting of this great crop being our chief industry. 
But next to the planting of cotton and practically as important 
is our cotton manufacturing industry which began to develop 
like magic during the years after Reconstruction. Before the 
War Between the Sections there was a deep seated prejudice in 
this state against white people working in mills, even though 
South Carolina had been probably the first state in the United 
States to have a cotton mill. Most of the people of South 
Carolina, including great leaders like Calhoun, felt up to the 
time of the war that South Carolina should be entirely an 
agricultural state. Before the war, nearly all the cotton cloth 
made in the State was woven by negro slaves. After Reccmstruc- 
tion this prejudice against cotton mills began to die out and by 
1885 the cotton mill industry was firmly rooted as the second 
great industry of the state. The Piedmont Manufacturing 


Company at Piedmont was founded in 1873 by Colonel Henry 
Pinckney Hammett. The Pelzer Manufacturing Company at 
Pelzer was established in 1880 by Francis J. Pelzer, William 
Lebby and Captain Ellison A. Smyth. Numerous other mills 
were built until as the years passed tens of thousands of our 
white citizens were employed in manufacturing cotton goods. 
Most of the cotton mills of South Carolina are in the Up- 
Country where they get power from the swift streams. In some 
parts of the Up-Country one can scarcely go ten miles without 
seeing a cotton mill. South Carolina now ranks third in the 
United States in the manufacture of cotton goods. Within 
fifteen years after Reconstruction South Carolina was no longer 
known solely as an agricultural state ; for along with cotton 
growing cotton manufacturing had come to stay. 

455- Other Manufacturing Industries. Manufacturing of 
other kinds besides cotton goods was started in South Carolina 
after Reconstruction. This period marked the beginning of the 
cotton seed crushing industry. In 1880 there was not a cotton 
oil mill in the State. Cotton seed were used as a fertilizer, or 
thrown away as waste. In 1882 three cotton seed oil mills were 
built, one in Charleston, one in Greenville and one in Chester. 
From this small beginning. South Carolina soon ranked as one 
of the foremost states of the Union in the cotton seed crushing 
industry'. The lumber industry and the naval stores industry 
took on new life after Reconstruction. Railroads were rapidly 
built into all sections of the State. The end of Reconstruction 
was the starting point for a wonderful development of manu- 
factures in South Carolina. During this period manufacturing 
was increasing in this State five times faster than in the United 
States as a whole. The war had completely changed the in- 
dustrial life of the State by first doing away with the old planta- 
tion life, which was dependent on the holding of slaves, and then 
taking a large portion of our people from the fields to the mills. 

456. Mining in South Carolina. In 1880 General John- 
son Hagood whom we remember fighting gallantly in many battles 



Governor John C. 


of the War Between the Sections was elected governor of South 
Carolina. He was followed in 1882 by Hugh S. Thompson, 
former State Superintendent of Education, who held the office 
for two terms. While some of our foremost citizens were bend- 
ing their efforts to develop manufactur- 
ing in this State there were at the same 
time many who began to realize the 
value of our mining resources which up 
to this time had scarcely been touched. 
The greatest development was in mining 
phosphate in the Low-Country. Fertil- 
izer was made from the phosphate rock 
and in a short time this grew to be one 
of the most valuable of the industries 
of the State. 

Moreover on every ton of phosphate 
mined from lands owned by South 
Carolina and from the beds of its rivers a royalty or tax was 
paid to the State. The growth of this industry was so rapid 
that, whereas in 1870 less than 2,000 tons were mined, in 1883 
over 350,000 tons were mined. The royalty from phosphate 
mining alone was almost enough of itself to pay the expenses 
of the state government. The industry died out because it was 
found that phosphate rock could be mined more cheaply in 

457- Quarries Developed, During this period of wonder- 
ful development in manufacturing and phospliate mining South 
Carolina began to develop her fine granite quarries. This State 
has many valuable quarries which furnish splendid material for 
buildings, monuments, paving blocks and crushed stone for road 
building. Limestone quarries were also developed and manj'' 
plants were established to mine kaolin, a clay from which china 
is made. These mining and quarrying operations also diverted 
many men from the farms. 

458. Summary of the Period. The ten years of white gov« 


ernment from Hampton's administration to Thompson's saw a 
complete change in the life of the State. The great plantations 
worked by slave labor gave way to numerous small farms worked 
either by the white people or in co-operation with the freed 
negroes. In the Up-Country cotton mills sprang up like mush- 
rooms increasing so rapidly in numbers and in size that South 
Carolina now ranks third in the Union in cotton manufacturing. 
Along with this wonderful development came that of the mines 
of South Carolina, the phosphate mining and granite quarries 
soon furnishing large sources of wealth to South Carolina. In 
no other ten years has there been a development of so momentous 
a nature as from 1876 to 1886. 



459. Political Unrest. Governor Hugh S. Thompson was 
succeeded by John Peter Richardson of Sumter. Governor 
Richardson was re-elected in 1888, thus holding the office from 
1886 to 1890. The years of Governor Richardson's term were 
ones of great political unrest in South Carolina. The period 
immediately following Reconstruction was marked, as we have 
seen, by almost unparalleled progress. New towns, more rail- 
roads, new and greater manufacturing plants, new methods of 
farming had all contributed to rebuilding the State after the 
destruction caused by the War Between the Sections. A great 
factor in bringing about the unrest during Richardson's ad- 
ministration was the falling price of cotton — the chief crop of 
the State. From 1870 to 1880 cotton had sold for from sixteen 
to eighteen cents a pound. Then from 1880 the price of cotton 
began to fall. It first dropped to around ten cents a pound and 
then steadily declined until it hardly paid to plant it. As is 
always the case when cotton is low our people were discon- 
tented. They grumbled against the state government, accusing 
the officials and the legislature of extravagance and mismanage- 
ment. They began to say that no one was ever elected to office 
except rich men and professional men and that it was only right 
that the farmers and the laboring classes should have some share 
in the government. Demands were made for a new constitution, 
the constitution then in force having been written by the Radi- 
cals during Reconstruction. A great many people complained of 
the large sales of whiskey. A party grew up which demanded 

460. Farmers' Movement. This wholesale dissatisfaction 




Governor Benjamin R. 

grew into what became known as the "Farmers' Movement." 
In 1886 the Farmers' Association was formed and the first 
meeting was lield with Captain Benjamin R. Tillman of Trenton 
as its leader. The object of the association was to gain for the 
farmers more rights in the government. 
Its leaders declared that bankers and 
lawyers and old soldiers had held all the 
offices long enough and it was time for 
the farmers to have some of them. Curi- 
ous to say a large number of the mem- 
bers of the Farmers' Association were 
themselves professional men. The peo- 
ple behind the "Farmers' Movement" 
complained that the University of South 
Carolina was a place only for rich men 's 
sons. They demanded that the State 
provide a college for the sons of 
farmers. The "Farmers' Movement" steadily grew in numbers 
and in strength until it developed into the strongest party in 
the State. 

461. The Farmers' College. Just at the time that the 
farmers were demanding a separate college for their sons, 
Thomas G. Clemson, a son-in-law of John C. Calhoun, made a 
gift to the State of "Fort Hill," Calhoun's plantation, for the 
purpose of establishing a college for boys. The gift was accepted 
and the legislature passed an act providing for the founding of 
an agricultural college for boys on the Calhoun property given 
by Clemson. The establishment of this college showed the 
strength of the "Farmers' Movement" which had demanded a 
farmers' college. The college was named for Clemson. 

462. A School for Girls Urged. South Carolina had made 
no provision for educating the women of the State except through 
private or denominational schools. Governor Richardson urged 
that something be done now for the girls of the State as provision 
had been made for the boys through the University of South 



Carolina and the establishment of Clemson College, A training 
school for girls had been founded in Columbia with a private 
fund. Governor Richardson asked that this school be taken over 
by the State and enlarged into a college for women. Later the 
legislature appointed a commission to inquire into the founding 
of a state school for girls. 

Administration Building at Clemson College. 

463. Tillman Becomes Governor. By 1890 the ''Farmers' 
Movement" had become so powerful that its leader, Benjamin 
R. Tillman, was elected governor of South Carolina. He held 
the office for two terms, at the end of which time he was elected 
to the United States Senate. There has never been a more hotly 
contested election in South Carolina than that of Tillman. 
People were either "Tillmanites" or "Anti-Tillmanites." In 
the election a candidate for any office had to declare whether 
he was for or against Tillman. There was so much feeling that 
riots were barely prevented. ' ' Pitchfork Ben ' ' became Tillman 's 
nickname. The State was torn into two factions over the election 



and it was many years before the feeling died down. Governor 
Tillman declared in his inaugural address that he came as a re- 
former, that is to say that he meant to change conditions. He 
demanded the calling of a convention for the making of a new 
and better constitution. He advised that the department of 
agriculture and meclianics be moved from the University of 
South Carolina to Clemson College. He strongly urged the 

Administration Building, Wixthrop College. 

founding of a great industrial college for girls and advised an 
investigation of the phosphate industry, declaring that the valu- 
able phosphate lands were taxed only as farming lands. The 
legislature at once acted favorably upon Governor Tillman's 

464. The Prohibition Question. It was not until long 
after the Revolutionary AVar that a sentiment began to develop 
in this State against the selling of whiskey. The old plantation 
owners had made their own liquors and imported fine wines 
from foreign countries. They took great pride in the contents 
of their wine cellars. For an honored guest the rarest wines 
were brought forth. The slaves were given regular rations of 


whiskey. Every town had its barroom or saloon where the men 
gathered. These barrooms grew in size and numbers until at 
the time of Governor Tillman's election as governor there were 
between seven and eight hundred of them in South Carolina. 
The people at last realized that a large part of the crime and 
much of the privation and suffering in the State was due to the 
drinking and selling of liquor. A strong sentiment for prohibi- 
tion developed after Reconstruction. The movement to stop the 
sale of whiskey grew to such proportions that in 1892 an election 
was held to find out just how the people as a whole stood upon 
the matter. Strange to say few came out to vote. It was found 
that of those who had voted the majority were for prohibition. 
This was, however, less than half of the voters of the State. 

465. Dispensary Established. Governor Tillman now said 
that instead of passing a prohibition law the legislature might 
better carry out the will of the people by establishing a State 
Dispensary to control the sale of liquor. Governor Tillman's 
plan was to locate a central dispensary at Columbia and a local 
dispensary at each county seat. The local dispensaries were to 
be supplied by the central dispensary. All of the sale of 
whiskey would thus be turned over to the State. Governor Till- 
man's plan was adopted by the General Assembly and the 
State Dispensary was established. 

466. The "Darlington War." The establishment of the 
State Dispensary unfortunately did not settle the liquor trouble. 
The law creating the Dispensary provided for appointment of 
constables. The duty of the constables was to stop any illegal 
sale of liquor. The constables were armed and given the right 
to search without a warrant private houses where they suspected 
liquor to be hidden for unlawful sale. All sales of liquor not 
made through the Dispensary were illegal. There was great 
opposition to the constables who at times abused their authority 
to search without warrant. This resulted in violence in various 
parts of the State. The most serious trouble occurred in Darling- 
ton in 1894. This was known as the "Darlington War." Two 



citizens were killed and two wounded. The search without 
warrant law was finally changed, but other and greater troubles 
of which we shall hear later grew out of the State Dispensary 
system. The prohibition movement steadily developed. 

467. The Storm of 1893. In 1893 a storm raged over the 
whole State, inflicting immense damage. The greatest loss and 
suffering were on the coast. A thousand lives were lost. Crops 
were ruined and houses blown down. Governor Tillman recom- 
mended to the legislature that help be given the storm-swept 

468. Growing Unrest. The price of cotton continued low 
and the people began to feel the pinch 
resulting from getting so little money 
from their chief crop. The price had 
declined so since 1880 that the farmers 
felt that it was scarcely worth while to 
plant. As a result business was bad in 
all lines and grumbling was heard on 
all sides. This discontent crystallized 
into a pressing demand for a new state 
Constitution. The Constitution under 
which they were living was that formed 
in 1868 by the Radicals and had natu- 
rally many bad features. A new Consti- 
tution became the most talked of topic of the day. At this time 
Governor Tillman was sent to the United States Senate and 
John Gary Evans of Edgefield was elected governor of the 
State in 1894. 

469. Constitution of 1895. In 1894 the demand for a new 
Constitution had grown to such proportions that the legislature 
called for an election of delegates to form a Convention for the 
purpose of making a new Constitution. The Convention was 
held in Columbia in 1895. The most important question before 
the Convention was framing new election laws. This was neces- 
sary so as to give the white people protection against an over- 

GovBKNOK John Gauy 


whelming and illiterate majority of negroes in the State. The 
Constitution was at length agreed upon and was called the 
Constitution of 1895. This Constitution is the one under which 
we live today. 


470. Effect of War Upon Education in South Carolina. 

The schools and colleges in South Carolina had almost all closed 
during the War Between the Sections. The last call for soldiers 
in 1865 took into the field every white male aged from sixteen 
to sixty. There were no youths left for the colleges. Some of 
the school buildings were used for hospitals. Some were turned 
into homes for refugees from those parts of the State which had 
been ruined by the Union armies. Some were destroyed by the 

471. New Start After the War. The educational institu- 
tions reopened after the war ended. The South Carolina College 
was reorganized as a university. Private colleges began to repair 
their buildings and receive students. Everyone was eager to 
make up as far as possible for the time lost during the four years 
of war. 

472. Effect of Reconstruction Upon Education. These 
brave efforts to start the schools again after the war were ended 
by Reconstruction. As we have seen, South Carolina was put 
under military rule and treated like a conquered province. The 
Radicals and the negroes took charge of the government. The 
new Constitution they made provided for a system of public 
schools with a State Superintendent of Education. Under him 
were officers in each county to manage the schools. This system 
Avas splendid in theory, but the Radical government was so dis- 
honest that the school system proved a failure. "We have studied 
about the way in which the schools were mismanaged, the money 
for their support stolen and the teachers left unpaid. 

473. The Present Public School System. When Hamp- 
ton was elected governor in 1876 and South Carolina freed from 




the Radicals, the people wanted to do away entirely with the 
Constitution made by the Radicals. But there were some in the 
State who felt that the public school system provided in the 
Constitution had been a failure because of the dishonesty of the 
Radicals and that the system itself was good. The school system 
Avas retained. The counties were divided into school districts 
managed by local boards of trustees. The state superintendent 
supervised all the schools of the state. The state superintendent 

Barracks Building on the New Site of The Citadel in Charleston. 

with the governor of the state and seven persons appointed by 
the governor form the State Board of Education. This board 
makes rules for the government of the schools. It examines 
teachers and gives them certificates to teach. It selects and 
adopts the textbooks to be used in the schools. Each county 
elects a County Superintendent of Education who directs the 
schools of that county under the supervision of the state superin- 

474. Attendance. The children of the rich and poor alike 
go to our public schools, which have progressed wonderfully in 



recent years. All children between the ages of eight and four- 
teen years are required by law to attend schools. South Caro- 
lina feels that educated people make the best citizens and the 
State is determined that every child within its borders shall have 
the advantage of the good education offered free in the public 
schools to each girl and boy in South Carolina. 

475. The Negro Schools. The negroes in South Carolina 
have a school system like that of the white people although they 
pay only a very small proportion of the taxes. After the slaves 
were freed so few of them were able to teach that many educated 
white men and women taught in the negro schools for a time. 
There are negro schools in every county in the state. The lead- 
ing men of South Carolina since the War Between the Sections 
have urged that the negroes be given a common school educa- 
tion so as to make better citizens of them. The State partly sup- 
ports a State College at Orangeburg for the negroes. 

476. The College of Charleston. The first college in South 
Carolina was the College of Charleston established in 1790. Its 
first trustees were among the most famous men in the State — 
General Moultrie, the hero of Fort Moultrie; Edward Rutledge 
and Arthur Middleton, the signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and John Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinekney 
and Charles Pinekney, signers of the Constitution of the United 
States. The College of Charleston was not a financial success 
at first. For a while a high school was substituted for it, but 
later the college was taken 
over by the city of Charles- 
ton. In 1851 Louis Agassiz, 
the great scientist, lectured 
in Charleston on natural sci- 
ence and greatly stimulated 
the life of the college. The 
college steadily prospered 
and while not a large one, 

,, . ,, 11. -n • Mai\ I>l-ilui.\(;, College of 

tniS, the Oldest college in Charleston. 


South Carolina, offers a scholarly classical course. Its dis- 
tinguished graduates have been prominent in many walks of life. 

477. The University of South Carolina. In 1805 this in- 
stitution was opened as the South Carolina College at Columbia 
to be supported by the State. It prospered until the War Be- 
tween the Sections. Within its walls a company was formed for 
service in the war. In 1862 the doors were closed, for students 
and professors had gone to fight for the Confederacy. The 
buildings were then used as a hospital for sick and wounded 
soldiers. After the war the college opened under the rule of the 
Radicals. The students left and the professors resigned. The 
institution was then closed by the legislature. It was reopened 
in 1880. In 1906 this old institution was renamed the Uni- 
versity of South Carolina. It offers now literary degrees and 
degrees in law and engineering. The university is noted for 
the number of famous men who have been graduated from it. 
It^lias one of the best and largest libraries in the State. 

478. The Citadel. The Military College of South Carolina 
was called the Citadel because the buildings were first used for 
storing arms owned by the state. The Citadel was opened as a 
military academy in 1842. Of the 240 graduates at the begin- 
ning of the War Between the Sections over 200 were officers in 
the Confederate army. At the close of the war the Citadel was 
seized by Union forces. The school was not reopened until 
1882. This institution stands next to West Point in the thor- 
oughness of its military training. Its graduates are qualified 
for commissions in the United States army and many served 
with distinction during the World War. 

479. Medical College of South Carolina. This college was 
organized in 1823 and is one of the oldest medical colleges in 
the United States. The course extends over four years. Con- 
nected with it is a college of pharmacy. 

480. Clemson Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
Clemson College was established in 1889 by act of legislature and 
was the direct result of the demand of the farmers of South 



Carolina for an educational institution at which agriculture 
would be taught. The gift of 1,130 acres of land was made to 
the State of South Carolina by Thomas G. Clemson, son-in-law 
of John C, Calhoun, for the purpose of founding an agricul- 
tural college for boys. The old home of Calhoun stands in the 
center of the campus on a beautiful knoll. Men are thoroughly 
prepared at Clemson for developing the resources of the State 

Main Building at Furman University. 

by courses in agriculture, in mechanics, in electrical and civil 
engineering and in textile manufacturing. 

481. Winthrop Normal and Industrial College. In 1891 
the General Assembly of South Carolina incorporated the 
"Winthrop Normal and Industrial College of South Carolina." 
The college was located at Rock Hill and its doors opened in 
1894. Winthrop has grown by leaps and bounds. This college 
offers thorough and efficient courses for the girls of the State. 
It ranks very high among the teacher training colleges of the 
United States. It has earned the praise of all classes of people 
regardless of politics or religion. There is no better school in 
the South for the training of young women for the noble pro- 
fession of teaching and for the practical duties of life. 

482. The Baptist Colleges. The Baptist denomination has 



The Rev. Dr. Eichard 


Noted Baptist Minister for 
whom Furmau Univer- 
sity was named. 

excellent colleges in South Carolina. 
Furman University at Greenville, the 
Baptist institution for men, was opened 
in 1852. The college was named for 
the Rev. Richard Furman, a Patriot and 
preacher who did much to strengthen 
the Baptist denomination in this state. 
It is said that Lord Cornwallis re- 
marked during the Revolutionary War 
that he feared the prayers of this 
patriotic preacher "more than he did 
the soldiers of Sumter and Marion." 
The Greenville Woman's College was 
established by the Baptists in 1854 to 
educate young women and was located 
in Greenville. Limestone College at Gaffney and Anderson 
College at Anderson are two more Baptist colleges for women, 
the former founded in 1846 and the latter in 1911. 

483. Coker College. This college for women at Hartsville 
was founded and heavily endowed by the late Major James L. 
Coker, one of the state's best citizens. Coker College was the 
outgrowth of the Welsh Neck Baptist High School at Harts- 
ville. The property owned by this school was given by Major 
Coker and other men of the Peedee 
section. In 1908 Coker College was 
founded and took the place of the high 
school. The trustees of Coker College 
are nominated by Baptist associations, 
but Major Coker, while a member of 
the Baptist church himself, wished the 
college to be strictly non-sectarian in its 
character and service. The endowment 
fund of Coker College is administered 
by its board of trustees, with the ex- ^^^^^ j^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^_ 

Ception of $150,000 which was given by Founder of Colcer College. 



Major Coker to the college and which is administered by a trust 
board composed of five men, two of whom are Baptists and three 
belong to other denominations. Major Coker 's liberality in pro- 
viding buildings and money gave Coker College a prominent 
place among the colleges for women in the South. The endow- 
ment and equipment of this school now amount to nearly one 
million dollars. 

Admi.nistkation Building at Woffoud College. 

484, The Methodist Colleges. Wofford College at Spar- 
tanburg was chartered in 1851. This college was founded by the 
Rev. Benjamin Wofford, a Methodist minister who made a 
fortune and in his will left it to his denomination to build a 
college for men. Wofford College, due to the great sacrifices of 
the Methodists interested in it, did not close its doors during 
the War Between the Sections or during Reconstruction. Since 
those troubled times it has grown steadily and developed in use- 
fulness and service. Columbia College, a Methodist college for 
women, was founded in 1859. In 1904 the college was moved 
to new buildings in the suburbs of Columbia. Its buildings 
were almost ruined by fire a few years later, but were rebuilt and 
enlarged. Lander College at Greenwood, another Methodist col- 



lege for women, was founded at AVilliamston in 1872 by the 
Rev. Samuel Lander and moved to Greenwood in 1904. 

485. The Presbyterian Colleges. The Presbyterian Col- 
lege of South Carolina at Clinton grew out of the Clinton high 
school established during Reconstruction. The college was first 
known as Clinton College and in 1893 its name was changed to 
the Presbyterian College of South Carolina. The same year the 
Presbyterians organized Chicora College at Greenville. This 
college was moved to Columbia and combined with the College 
for Women. The Columbia Theological Seminary, one of the 
oldest educational institutions in the State, was opened in 1828 
for educating men for the Presbyterian ministry. 

486. The Associate Reformed Presbyterian Colleges. 
Erskine College at Due West was founded by the Associate Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church in 1836. This was the first de- 
nominational college opened in South Carolina and it has had a 
long and useful career. Due West Female College was founded 
by the Associate Reformed Presbyterians in 1860. 

487. The Lutheran Colleges. The Lutheran synod estab- 
lished Newberry College at Newberry in 1858 for the education 

of its youth. The college 
closed from 1861 to 1865 
while most of its professors 
and students fought for their 
State. The endowment fund 
of this college was lost by in- 
vestment in Confederate 
bonds. The Lutheran church 
has a theological seminary at 
Columbia where men are 

trained for the Lutheran ministry. Summerland College, near 

Leesvillc, is the Lutheran college for women. 

488. Converse College. D. E. Converse, a wealthy cotton 
manufacturer of Spartanburg, founded Converse College in that 
city. This college for women was opened in 1889. It is non- 

HoLLAND Hall at Newberuy College. 


denominational and its high standards attract girls from many 
parts of the country. It is famous for the music festivals given 
each spring under its auspices. 

489. Confederate Home College. Mrs. M. A. Snowden, a 
patriotic woman of Charleston, was instrumental in founding 
the Confederate Home College for Girls. The founder's object 
was to provide a home and school for the daughters of Con- 
federate soldiers. The college was opened in Charleston in 1867. 

490. The Catholic Schools. The Catholic Church has pro- 
vided several schools for its youth in this state. Among these 
are St. Angela's Academy at Aiken, the Ursuline Academy at 
Columbia and the Sacred Heart Academy at Greenville. The 
Ursuline Academy is the oldest, having been opened in 1858. 


491. The War With Spain. In 1896 Governor Evans was 
succeeded by W. H. Ellerbe of Marion, the great-great-grandson 
of Captain Thomas Ellerbe who fought with Marion's brigade 
during the Revolution. Governor Ellerbe was elected for a 
second term but died in office and was succeeded by the lieu- 
tenant-governor, Miles B. McSweeney of Hampton. In 1900 
McSweeney was elected governor by the people. At the be- 
ginning of Governor Ellerbe 's term of office, South Carolina was 
aroused by affairs of national interest. The island of Cuba, 
under the dominion of Spain, had for many years been in revolt 
against the mother country. A large number of Americans 
were in business in Cuba and their affairs suffered greatly from 
the unsettled state of the island. Cuba was in a distressing 
condition. The farms had been destroyed and the people were 
starving. The tyranny and cruelty of Spain towards the Cubans 
aroused the indignation of all Americans. Spain was not able 
to subdue and govern the island. In February, 1898, the United 
States sent the battleship Maine to Cuba to protect American 
interests in the island. The Spaniards blew up the Maine in 
Havana harbor and 226 Americans were killed. The wrath of 
the United States was aroused by this cowardly act. On April 
25, 1898, this country declared war against Spain. The presi- 
dent called for 125,000 volunteers. South Carolina gave its 
full quota of men. 

492. South Carolina Troops, Upon the call for volunteers 
the Darlington Guards, the Sumter Light Infantry, the Edisto 
Rifles and the Manning Guards formed what was known as the 
Independent Battalion with Lieutenant Colonel Henry T. 
Thompson in command. This was the first organization in the 



State to be mustered into service for war with Spain. A heavy 
battery was formed and sent to Sullivan's Island. The First 
Regiment under Colonel Joseph K. Alston of Columbia was 
organized and sent to a camp in Tennessee and then to Florida. 
The Second South Carolina Regiment was organized under 
Colonel Wilie Jones of Columbia. Colonel Alston died before 
the war was ended and Lieutenant Colonel James H. Tillman 
took command of the First Regiment. The only South Carolina 
regiment which reached Cuba was the Second Regiment under 
Colonel "Wilie Jones, which was sent first to Savannah and from 
there to Cuba on the transport Roumanian. As this regiment 
marched throvigh the streets of Havana it was cheered by the 
Cubans. The South Carolina Regiment camped about five miles 
from Havana and took no active part in any engagement. 
Colonel Jones, through his careful attention to camp sanitation 
and his kindly consideration of his men, lost only three of his 
force by sickness, though the death rate was very high in some 

493. War Ends Quickly. The war was short. It consisted 
of several engagements in Cuba, the sinking of the small Spanish 
fleet off Santiago and the important naval battle of Manila Bay 
in the Philippines. The war ended in victory for the Ameri- 
cans. Among those South Carolinians who saw service was 
Lieutenant Victor Blue of the navy, who distinguished himself 
by brilliant scouting near Santiago. 

494. Prosperity Follows War. The price of cotton began 
to rise almost immediately after the war with Spain. This 
meant the end of the long period of financial depression in the 
South. Business at once began to revive. The cotton crop of 
1900 was almost double that of 1890 and brouglit a good price. 
Consequently business expanded in all lines. Cotton manufac- 
turing developed until the whole face of the Up-Country was 
dotted with cotton mills. In the year 1899 eleven new cotton 
mills were built and sixteen old mills enlarged. The cotton 
seed oil and the lumber industries took on new life. The period 


after the war with Spain was marked by activity in railroad 

495. Diversification of Crops. Diversification of crops in 
South Carolina means the planting of other crops beside cotton. 
"Cotton is king" has been the State's slogan ever since the in- 
vention of the cotton gin and South Carolina has neglected 
other crops in favor of cotton, the great "money crop." About 
1890 the movement for crop diversification began. From 1880 
to 1890 the corn crop almost doubled. South Carolina began to 
raise other "money crops" — tobacco, cabbage, lettuce, Irish 
potatoes, strawberries and melons. 

496. The Trucking Industry, The trucking industry was 
at first confined to Charleston, Colleton, Beaufort and Berkeley 
counties. Truck growing for market began on Yonge's Island 
in 1868. Cabbage and Irish potatoes were first tried and then 
other vegetables. Soon Yonge's Island could boast the largest 
cabbage fields in the world. In 1899 a colony of settlers from 
the Middle West came to Horry county and began trucking. 
Today the growing of strawberries, Irish potatoes and other 
truck in the lower Peedee section has developed into a great 
industry. Bamberg and Barnwell counties are noted for their 
great melon fields. 

497. Tea Culture. The Pinehurst tea garden at Summer- 
ville is the only producing tea garden in America. Over 100 
years ago tea plants were brought to America and were planted 
at Middleton Place on the Ashley river near Charleston, prob- 
ably by Michaux, a French botanist. 

498. Tobacco Growing. Tobacco was grown by the Indians 
when South Carolina was discovered by Europeans. This crop 
has nearly always been an important one in the State. In the 
early nineties newspaper enterprise gave the industry a new 
start. The principal tobacco growing counties today are 
Florence, Dillon, Marion, "Williamsburg, Sumter, Horry and 
Clarendon. Each of these counties sell yearly tobacco by the 
million pounds. 


499. Fruit Growing. From mountains to seaboard South 
Carolina is well adapted for fruit growing. The Sand Hill belt 
produces delightful peaches, while fruits of almost every kind 
flourish in the Piedmont. In the coastal region oranges can be 
brought to perfection although they are no longer grown for 
market. The wild grapes which excited the admiration of the 
French colonists under Ribault in 1562 still abound. It is said 
that the first olives in America were grown in South Carolina 
and that at the time of the Revolution there was a ten acre olive 
grove on the south shore of Port Royal harbor. In Beaufort 
today are found olive and camphor trees, and oranges are raised 
on the sea islands. There are fine pecan groves in several 
counties in the State. 

500. Charleston Exposition. In 1901, with the opening of 
the new century, the South Carolina and West Indian Exposi- 
tion was held in Charlesston. This exposition served to illustrate 
the wonderful resources of the State, and the remarkable develop- 
ment since the "War Between the Sections. The exposition 
showed what South Carolina had accomplished and what she 
was at the beginning of this century. 


501. The Twentieth Century. Social progress makes the 
people of a state better and happier, while industrial progress 
develops a state's resources. The first twenty years of the 
Twentieth Century have been marked by both social and in- 
dustrial progress in South Carolina. The State has had many 
problems to face during these twenty years — the prohibition 
question, how to treat criminals, how to manage public chari- 
ties, the building of a system of highways, giving women the 
right to vote and, finally, how to organize the State to enable 
it to do its utmost to win the World War. 

502. Governors in Recent Years. Duncan Clinch Heyward 

of Colleton county was chosen governor 
in 1902 and served for two terms. He 
was succeeded in 1907 by Martin F. 
Ansel of Greenville. Governor Ansel 
held the office for two terms and was 
followed by Coleman L. Blease of 
Newberry. Governor Blease resigned a 
few days before the end of his second 
term and was succeeded by the lieuten- 
ant governor, Charles A. Smith of Tim- 
monsville. Richard I. Manning of 
Sumter was elected governor in 1914 
and, after serving for two terms, was 
succeeded by Robert A. Cooper of 

Laurens. Governor Cooper was re-elected for a second term in 


503. The Prohibition Question. One of tlie important 
movements of recent times was that which finally resulted in 


GovKiiNou Duncan C. 



Governor Martin F. 

prohibiting the sale of intoxicating 
liquors. We have seen that in South 
Carolina during Governor Tillman's 
administration the State Dispensary- 
system was created to sell liquor in 
place of the barrooms. The State Dis- 
pensary system was abolished after a 
few years and some of the officers con- 
nected with it were tried on charges of 
receiving bribes and other misconduct. 
The legislature gave each county the 
right to decide in an election whether 
it wanted a county dispensary. In 1909 there were twenty-one 
counties in which there were county dispensaries and an equal 
number in which the sale of liquor had been prohibited. The 
same year elections were held again and all of the twenty-one 
counties with dispensaries, except six, voted for prohibition. 
Five years later the people of South Carolina voted to prohibit 
the sale of liquor anywhere in the state. In 1919 the constitution 
of the United States was amended to prohibit the sale or manu- 
facturing of liquor. This action of the national government has 
apparently put an end to the vexing prohibition question for 
all time. 

504. Treatment of Criminals. The 
best way to treat men who have com- 
mitted crimes has received much atten- 
tion in South Carolina in recent years. 
The State Penitentiary was established 
in Columbia just before the War Be- 
tween the Sections and used in place of 
the county jails for confining criminals 
sentenced by the courts. For several 
years after Reconstruction convicts 

were hired to private individuals or 

, -1 • r> • Governor Coleman L, 

companies and used m larming or blease. 



building railroads. In several instances, the criminals were 
horribly mistreated. The chain-gang system was substituted for 
the hiring out of criminals and work for the criminals was also 
provided in the Penitentiary. Under the chain-gang system 
each county can use the male criminals to work the roads. 
Reformatories for boys were established, one for white boys at 
Florence and another for negro boys in Richland county. A re- 
formatory for white girls has also been built in Richland 
county. During Governor Blease's administration, the legisla- 
ture passed a law which provided that criminals sentenced to 
death by the courts should be electrocuted instead of hanged. 
The State Board of Charities and Corrections, now the State 
Board of Public Welfare, was created during Governor Man- 
ning's administration and given supervisory powers over state 
and county penal and charitable institutions. During Governor 
Cooper's first term, the duties of this board were enlarged. 

505. Public Charities. The State Hospital for the Insane 
at Columbia, founded in 1821, was thoroughly reorganized and 
improvement of its buildings begun during Governor Manning's 
administration and under his leadership. The State Hospital 
has been changed into a modern institution for treating diseases 
of the mind. The State Sanitarium near Columbia where 
tubercular patients are treated was built during Governor 
Manning's administration, but the move- 
ment for it was started during the ad- 
ministration of Governor Blease. The 
poor of the State are cared for in alms- 
liouses or given money or food at the 
counties' expense. 

506. Industrial Development. 
Probably the most important develop- 
ment in the industrial life of the State 
in recent years has been the building of 

great hydroelectric plants on the swift 
GovEUNOR Charles A. , r. ,i tt /-i . -n 

Smith. Streams 01 the Up-Country. linormous 



Governor Richard I. 

concrete dams have been thrown across 
the rapids in several of these streams 
and the force of the imprisoned waters 
used to generate electric current. This 
electric power turns the wheels in many- 
cotton mills and other manufacturing 
plants in place of steam power. It is 
also used by street railway lines and 
interurban lines connecting various 
cities and towns. The State and 
counties have built hundreds of miles 
of improved highways to meet the de- 
mands of the thousands of citizens who 
own automobiles which can only travel to advantage on good 
roads. The automobile owners are taxed to pay part of the cost 
of building and maintaining highways in South Carolina which 
are under the supervision of the State Highway Department. The 
farmers of South Carolina, who still produce the greater part 
of the wealth of the State, have learned better methods of plant- 
ing their crops and, through their associations, are learning that 
co-operation in marketing their crops is most important and 
pays. The planters have grasped the importance of storing a 
part of their cotton crop and not flooding the market by selling 
it as fast as it comes from the gins. 
The State Warehouse system and many 
private warehouses provide places for 
storing cotton. Farmers are also inter- 
ested as never before in diversifynig 
their crops to combat the boll weevil, 
the cotton pest which has spread all over 
South Carolina. 

507. Woman's Suffrage and Com- 
pulsory Education. The women of 
the State and nation were given the 

GovERNon Robert A. 

right to vote m elections during Gov- cooper. 


ernor Cooper's first term. The law requiring children to attend 
school was also enacted while he was governor and on his recom- 

508. The Mexican Trouble. The South Carolina Na- 
tional Guard w^as sent to the Mexican border along with other 
troops in 1916 to ward off bandit raids. The troops were on 
duty for a few months and then sent home when conditions in 
Mexico became more settled. South Carolina lost no men in 
battle during this trouble, but a few of its soldiers died in 
hospitals. One of these was Sergeant Robert Elliott Gonzales 
of Columbia, a brilliant newspaper writer and humorist, whose 
gifted pen had brought him fame all over the United States. 


509. Germany's Desire for World Conquest. The World 
War began in Europe in August, 1914. It came seemingly out of 
a clear sky. But by looking backward we can easily find its 
cause. For more than forty years Germany had been openly 
preparing for war. Under the iron rule of its Kaiser, William 
II, the children in the schools had been taught to worship the 
German government, which was a government based on military 
power, a government which believed that might made right. 
The Kaiser's government built up the best trained army on the 
globe for the purpose of conquering the world and bringing all 
the other nations under his rule. In 1914, when Germany was 
in perfect readiness for carrying out its plan of world conquest, 
none of the other nations of Europe were prepared for war. 
France and England were having troubles at home and the gov- 
ernments of both these countries were in the hands of men who 
opposed war and who were thus negligent about making any 
preparations for war. Russia also was in no condition to fight 
in 1914. The time was so favorable then for the Kaiser's plan 
that Germany eagerly awaited some excuse to declare war. 

510. Germany's Excuse. An excuse to bring on a great 
war was offered in July, 1914, when the heir to the throne 
of Austria-Hungary, the Archduke Ferdinand, and his wife 
while traveling in Sarajevo, Bosnia, were murdered by a half- 
crazed Serbian boy. Austria-Hungary, urged on by her ally, 
Germany, which saw in this incident an opportunity to bring 
on war, pretended to think that the murder was done for politi- 
cal reasons and that the Serbian government was responsible for 
it. In holding Serbia responsible for the murder Austria made 
outrageous demands upon this little country, knowing that no 



self-respecting nation could comply with some of them. Serbia, 
being under the protection of Russia, was supported by that 
country in its refusal to grant some of the demands of Austria. 
Then, the Kaiser, pretending to believe that Russia was arming 
to fight Germany, declared war upon Russia. France and 
Russia were allies and thus the French were drawn into the war. 
In this way Germany brought about the struggle in which the 
Kaiser expected to conquer the world. 

511. The Despoiling of Belgium. Germany decided to 
take Paris with one swift blow and from the great French 
capital to carry on the plan of world conquest. What Germany 
considered the easiest route to Paris ran through Belgium, which 
had not as yet been drawn into the war. It is a well recognized 
right of a neutral nation to forbid an invading army to pass over 
its soil. Besides, England, France and Germany had all 
solemnly promised to protect the neutrality of Belgium. 

At the beginning of the war Germany demanded of Belgium 
permission to send an army over its soil. Belgium refused, and 
Germany, calling its written promise to respect the neutrality 
of Belgium a "scrap of paper," began the march to Paris. 
Belgium threw its army in the path of Germany. With the 
resistance of Belgium began the most barbarous invasion known 
to the civilized world. All the recognized laws of modern war- 
fare were disregarded by Germany. Innocent Belgium was 
ruthlessly despoiled, her crops laid waste, her cathedrals de- 
stroyed, and her women and children treated by the German 
soldiers with a cruelty which would have shamed savages. Step 
by step the Belgian army was driven back and one by one the 
Germans captured the Belgian forts. 

512. England Enters the War. The heroic resistance of 
Belgium gave France valuable time to make preparations to meet 
the enemy. But for the gallant fight of Belgium, Paris would 
surely have been taken. In the meantime, England, aroused by 
Germany's breach of faith in invading Belgium, and realizing 
the menace to all nations if Germany should be victorious in 


defeating France, declared war upon Germany, The great 
countries of Europe were now all at war with Germany and 

513. The United States and the War. It has always been 
the policy of the United States to keep free from any entangling 
alliances such as those which had drawn all the great European 
countries into the "World War. We had thought that America, 
being separated from Europe by the Atlantic Ocean, could keep 
out of foreign wars. We had no wish to conquer smaller and 
weaker nations, nor to increase our territory. Thus, when the 
war commenced in 1914, we looked upon it as a struggle not our 
own and expressed no definite sympathy with the Allies — 
France, England, Russia, Belgium and Serbia, nor with the 
Central Powers — Germany and Austria-Hungary. Later, 
Rumania and Italy joined the Allies and Turkey and Bulgaria 
the Central Powers. 

When the stories of the brutalities and outrages of German 
soldiers in the occupied parts of France and Belgium began 
to reach the United States our people heard them with doubt, 
but when shortly afterwards proofs of these atrocities arrived 
all America was shocked. We began to realize what a military 
nation with the ideals of Germany would do to attain its ends. 
The military authorities of Germany had deliberately planned 
the war and were prepared to win it by breach of faith, savagery 
and any unfair means which might gain their ends. Along with 
the tales of the devastation of Belgium and part of France 
came accounts of like horrors in Poland and Serbia, the German 
soldier carrying destruction wherever he went. The common 
promptings of humanity aroused our sympathies for these suf- 
fering peoples. 

514. The United States in Sympathy With the Allies. 
The people of the United States showed their sympathy for 
the inhabitants of the devastated parts of Belgium, Serbia, 
France and Poland by sending them money and ships loaded 
with food, clothing and other necessities. For two years the 



struggle continued, the horrors of warfare as waged by the 
Germans becoming so terrible that our sympathies were drawn 
more and more to the Allies with each new outrage. We did 
not believe that the United States would be forced into the war, 

Part of Camp Jalksu.x ^seau Culumuia. 

however. President Woodrow AVilson, one of the greatest men 
who ever lived in the world, constantly urged our people to 
keep a neutral attitude so that at the end of the war this country 
as the one great neutral nation could act without prejudice as 
peace-maker for the world. 

515. The German Submarine Campaign. As the war went 
on a neutral attitude became more and more impossible. 
Germany began a barbarous submarine campaign against our 
ships in which every recognized law of the seas was disregarded. 
Our ships were sunk without warning by German submarines 
miles from land where there was little chance of passengers 
being rescued. Relief ships from America carrying food for 
the starving Belgians, hospital ships carrying Red Cross nurses 
and wounded soldiers, and merchant ships flying the American 
flag and manned by American seamen were torpedoed and sunk 
without warning by the submarines, frequently with great loss 
of life. President Wilson made protest after protest to the 



German government, reminding it of its promises and appealing 
to it in the name of humanity to discontinue this inhuman use 
of the submarine, but to no avail. 

516. The United States Declares War Against Germany. 
On April 6, 1917, the United States declared war against Ger- 
many. The truth was forced upon us that the freedom of the 
world was menaced. If the free peoples of Europe were crushed 
by Germany the people of America were in danger. Already 
Germany had made war upon us by sinking our ships and 
murdering our countrymen upon them. With Europe con- 
quered Germany's next step would be to try to crush the United 
States. A nation with no respect for its written word nor for 
the common laws of humanity could not be allowed to become 
powerful enough to wage a successful war against America. 
In joining the Allies we were fighting for our own safety and 
for the freedom of mankind. The part played by the United 



■Ty I 



rrtiiilSis '■ ' '"* "WS-™;^!?? 



- ■■-■'" -=^- 

Part of Camp Sevier Near Greenville. 

States during the first year after its entry into the World War 
may be grouped under the following four heads : the creation of 
an army, the work of the navy, the raising of money, and the 
production and saving of food. 


517. The Selective Draft. Foremost among these was the 
creation and equipping of an army. Six weeks after war was 
declared upon Germany President Wilson signed a compulsory 
military service bill passed by Congress. On June 5, 1917, all 
men in the United States between the ages of 21 and 31 years 
were required to register for service in the National Army. On 
this day 9,586,508 men registered. Sixteen training camps, 
called cantonments, were established in various parts of the 
United States to prepare the drafted men for military service. 
The militia of the country was taken into the National Army. 
Camps were also provided for those who volunteered for train- 
ing as officers of the National Army. 

While these preparations were being made for the making 
of a great army from the civil population, a detachment from 
the regular army was sent to Europe to assist the Allies. In 
October, 1917, some American troops for the first time were put 
into the trenches on the French front. 

518. Three Military Camps in South Carolina. Of the 
sixteen cantonments provided for the training of the drafted 
men three were built in South Carolina. One was placed near 
Columbia and called Camp Jackson, in honor of General Andrew 
Jackson, a native of South Carolina. The second camp was 
located near Greenville and named Camp Sevier, in honor of the 
Revolutionary soldier who fought so bravely at the Battle of 
King's Mountain. The third camp was at Spartanburg. It 
was called Camp Wadsworth. These three camps, a larger 
number than in any other state in the Union, were placed in 
South Carolina because of its temperate climate and other 
natural advantages. 

519. The Work of the Navy. The United States Navy 
M^as prepared to fight at the beginning of the war. Months had 
to be given to the training of a land force, but at the first call 
the Navy was in readiness. During the first year of the war 
the Navy protected our own coasts, convoyed troops and food 
to our Allies, and worked in co-operation with the sea forces of 



the Allies. The war on the 
sea, however, was centered 
chiefly around the efforts to 
destroy the German sub- 
marines. Plans for enlarg- 
ing the navy yard at Charles- 
ton were set on foot during 
1918, and the Marine Corps' 
training station at Port 
Royal was greatly expanded. 

520. The Liberty Loans. 
The expense of carrying on a 
great war is enormous. The 
United States consequently 
asked its people for loans. 
The loans were made by buy- 
ing Liberty Bonds and War 
Savings Stamps. During the 
first year of the war two 
Liberty Loans were floated 

by the Treasury Department. South Carolina largely over- 
subscribed its allotment in the second of these loans. 

521. The Council of Defense. The Council of National 
Defense was created under an act of Congress in August, 1916. 
It was soon found that to keep in close touch with the different 
states that State Councils of Defense were necessary. In a very 
short time State Councils of Defense were organized in every 
state in the Union. The most important duties of these councils 
were to direct the war activities of the states, to give the Na- 
tional Council any needed information and to carry on a pub- 
licity campaign to keep the people in touch with the progress and 
aims of the war. 

The South Carolina State Council of Defense was organized 
in June, 1917. South Carolina was one of the first six states 
in the Union to complete its organization. The Council of De- 

Copyright Internatimial 

WooDKOw Wilson, 

President of the United States, to •whom 
free men everywhere looked for leader- 
ship during the World War. 


fense of this state soon took high rank. The organization of tlie 
South Carolina Division of the Women's Council of Defense was 
perfected in July, 1917. 

522. The Conservation of Food. After being informed 
that victory in the World War depended largely upon our ability 
to supply not only ourselves, but our Allies, with food, the 
people of the United States responded enthusiastically to the 
call of the government during the first year of the war to save 
and produce food. The United States Food Administration 
was established. To this organization the food control act, 
passed by Congress in August, 1917, gave power which it used 
during the war to stabilize the prices of food, to prevent specula- 
tion in food, and to secure the voluntary co-operation of the 
people of the United States in the tremendous campaign to save 
and produce food. South Carolina in common with all the 
other states was organized to carry on the work of the United 
States Food Administration. 

523. The American Red Cross. The American Red Cross, 
an organization wdiich served the soldiers and sailors of our 
country and their dependents, grew tremendously after the 
United States entered the World War. It employed a large body 
of trained nurses to care for our soldiers wounded on the field 
of battle. It built hospitals in the rear of the trenches on the 
battle fronts and organized a great ambulance service to carry 
the wounded from the battle field to the hospitals. The Red 
Cross also took upon itself the duty of looking after the families 
of those of our men who were fighting in Europe or training in 
the cantonments. South Carolinians aided the Red Cross by 
contributions of money and services. Every county in the state 
had at least one Red Cross chapter. 

524. The Nation in Arms. Though the United States ren- 
dered great aid to the Allies in the first twelve months after it 
declared war on Germany, this was entirely overshadowed by 
what our country was preparing to do in putting soldiers on 
the battle fronts in Europe, battleships and merchants ships on 


the seas and aeroplanes in the air. In fact, our first year in the 
World War was given mainly to making preparations to do our 
part in wiping out of existence the government of Kaiser 
William II. 


525. South Carolina Forces Drafted into the United States 
Army. When the United States entered the World War on April 
6, 1917, the armed forces of South Carolina, under the name of 
the National Guard, consisted of the First and Second Infantry 
Regiments; the Charleston Light Dragoons, Troop A Cavalry; 
Company A, Engineers; a battalion of Coast Artillery, and a 
field hospital unit. A few months after war was declared all 
of these forces were drafted into the United States Army. 

526. The Selective Draft. The selective draft, about 
which we studied in the preceding chapter, called to the service 
of their country men between twenty-one and thirty-one years 
of age. These were sent to the various camps for military train- 
ing. A great many of the men drafted from South Carolina 
were assigned to the Eighty-First Division. The State also 
supplied many officers and men to the Navy and the Marine 
Corps. Under the call for officers many of our men volunteered 
at the very beginning of the war and were sent to training 
camps for officers. Those who received commissions were placed 
in various divisions of the United States Army. There was 
hardly a division which did not include South Carolina men or 
officers. The majority of our men, however, served with the 
Thirtieth, the Forty-Second and the Eighty-First Divisions and 
our account will follow these divisions in greatest detail. 

527. The Thirtieth Division. A large part of the National 
Guard of South Carolina was placed in the Thirtieth Division 
after being mustered into the United States Army. The First 
Regiment, South Carolina Infantry, was renamed the One 
Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment and put in the Thirtieth 
Division. The Second Regiment, South Carolina Infantry, be- 



came the One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train of the 
Thirtieth Division. The Charleston Light Dragoons became 
headquarters troop for the Thirtieth Division. The field hospital 
unit was also attached to the same division. Thus we shall follow 
the movements of the Thirtieth Division with great interest 
because the history of this division is also the history of the 
larger portion of the National Guard troops of South Carolina. 

The Thirtieth Division was trained at Camp Sevier near 
Greenville. The men in this division were chiefly from South 
Carolina, North Carolina and Tennessee. The Thirtieth was 
given Andrew Jackson's nickname, ''Old Hickory," so closely 
identified with the Carolinas and Tennessee. The Thirtieth 
marched into Belgium on July 4, 1918, where it united with the 
British. This division did not come into the American Expedi- 
tionary Forces until after the Armistice. The men of the 
Thirtieth received training in the front line with the British 
first as individuals, then by platoons and then by battalions. 

528. The Forty-Second Division. Two companies of engi- 
neers were recruited in South Carolina and these, with the old 
Company A, Engineers, were organized into a battalion com- 
manded by Major J. M. Johnson of Marion. The battalion was 
placed in the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regi- 
ment. This regiment was mustered into the Forty-Second Divi- 
sion, which was knovTn as the "Rainbow Division" because it 
contained men from every state in the Union. The Forty- 
Second reached France in November, 1917. The South Carolina 
battalion in the division's One Hundred and Seventeenth Engi- 
neer Regiment was the first force from this State to get to 

After a period of training the Forty-Second began service 
with the French in the Luneville and Baccarat sector where its 
men gained valuable experience in deep shelter construction, 
excavation of trenches and erection of barbed wire. The One 
Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment took care of the 
roads and constructed an entire position. It is important to 


realize the true value of this engineering work. Without the 
keeping up of the roads and bridges, often at the cost of life, 
it would have been impossible to make attacks, or to transport 
food and ammunition. The business of war depended largely 
on the condition of the roads. The Engineer Regiment had to 
be made up of men trained in this line of work as well as men of 
courage and endurance. Often bridges had to be repaired under 
heavy fire. Also, the enormous amount of construction and 
trench work used on the battle fields of Europe made the work 
of the engineers of prime importance. Beside doing the usual 
engineering work, the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer 
Regiment was at times converted into an infantry regiment. 

529. The Eighty-First Division. The Eighty-First Divi- 
sion was composed largely of men from South Carolina, North 
Carolina and Florida. An ambulance company was also re- 
cruited in South Carolina and attached to the Eighty-First. 
This division was called the "Wildcat Division" because of a 
stream known as Wildcat creek which ran through Camp Jack- 
son where the division was trained. This division was also 
known as the "Stonewall Division" after the great Confederate 
general, Stonewall Jackson. During the winter of 1917-1918 a 
large number of the men of the Eighty-First were transferred 
to other divisions and drafted men from other states brought in. 
In May, 1918, the Eighty-First was moved to Camp Sevier. 
The division left the camp in July for overseas. The Eighty- 
First reached France early in August and after a month 's train- 
ing at Tonnere was attached to a French corps in the St. Die 
sector just as the Thirtieth had been attached to a British corps. 
The month of service in the St. Die sector was spent in raiding 
the enemy and repulsing enemy attacks. It was found that our 
men were very successful in using shotguns and automatic rifles. 
There were a number of minor engagements in which the men 
of the Eighty-First acquitted themselves admirably. The plac- 
ing of the Division in this comparatively quiet sector was for 
the purpose of preparing it for front line work. 


530. Negro Soldiers from South Carolina. Negro soldiers 
from South Carolina were assigned to various regiments. Many 
of them saw service in France in labor battalions. The Three 
Hundred and Seventy-First Regiment, made up principally of 
negroes from South Carolina, was trained at Camp Jackson and 
placed in the Ninety-Second Division. This regiment saw some 
severe fighting for about ten days before the armistice was 
signed. Its record was good. 

531. The Allies with Their "Backs to the Wall." The 
spring of 1918 found the Allies hard pressed by the Germans. 
In the great Battle of Picardy the British lost ground which 
they had won only by great sacrifice at the beginning of the 
war. The battle line extended from Arras to La Fere, and it 
was the aim of the Germans to break through to the French 
ports on the English Channel. They would thus have cut off 
the British from escape by sea and also have had a place to 
establish U-boat bases. Although the British were taxed to the 
limit of their endurance, fighting with their "backs to the 
wall," the line did not break. The Germans were so nearly 
victorious in the Battle of Picardy that the Allies realized that 
hope of success lay in placing all the allied armies under a 
central command. Ferdinand Foch, the great French general, 
was made commander-in-chief of all the allied forces. General 
Pershing immediately offered to put all the American troops 
then in France under his command. At this time our army 
abroad was not large and the Allies feared that America would 
not be able to get men in France in large enough numbers in 
time to save them from defeat. This was the most critical point 
of the war. 

532. The Drive to Paris. After failing to take the channel 
ports in the Battle of Picardy, the Germans next turned to at- 
tack the French. This drive carried them to Chateau-Thierry 
on the Marne river, within forty-five miles of Paris. It was at 
the Marne that the Germans faced American troops for the first 
time. These troops were largely Marines, some from South 


Carolina. The Americans had been sent forward many miles 
to face the Germans, who seemed likely to end their drive with 
the capture of the French capital. At Chateau-Thierry the 
Marines amazed the French by the deadly accuracy of their 
fire. They were as calm during the dreadful fighting as in 
practice or at drill. 

It is an interesting coincidence that when the Marines helped 
to stem the tide at Chateau-Thierry they barred the way to the 
estate of the Marquis de Lafayette as well as the road to Paris. 
This is of especial interest to South Carolina because it will be 
remembered that when Lafayette came to this country to help 
the Americans in the Revolutionary War it was at Georgetown, 
South Carolina, that he landed. The South Carolinians among 
the Marines who helped to prevent the Germans from taking 
Lafayette's estate were repaying to his heirs a debt they owed. 

533. German Drive on the Champagne Front. On July 
15, the Germans began a drive on the Champagne front. This 
was met and repelled by the French with the aid of the Forty- 
Second Division. This division had been moved from the Bac- 
carat sector late in June to the Champagne front in anticipa- 
tion of the attack and was the only American division to take 
part in it. The One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineers had 
been engaged in the work of preparing defenses, and after finish- 
ing this duty occupied a sector and fought as infantry through 
the battle. 

534. The Counter-Offensive. Matters looked extremely 
grave for the Allies. The Germans were so near Paris that the 
safety of the capital of France was seriously menaced. Marshal 
Foch felt that at last the time had come for a counter-attack. 
American soldiers were being poured into France on every ship 
and shiploads of food and ammunition were coming from 
America. Foch considered longer delay dangerous and three 
days after the Germans commenced their drive on the Cham- 
pagne front he gave the order for a great counter-offensive from 
the Marne to the Aisne rivers. 


535. Success of the Counter-Offensive. The Germans 
were taken completely by surprise by the counter-offensive. 
Their attack on the Champagne front failed and Foch pursued 
the advantage by striking again and again wherever he found 
the enemy least prepared. The battle line now ran from 
Switzerland to the North Sea. Sometimes the British and 
French would strike together, sometimes the French and Ameri- 
cans, and sometimes all three would attack in unison. This is 
what broke the German resistance. They never knew when or 
where to expect an attack and therefore could strengthen no 
particular place. They lost the offensive never to regain it. 
Of the long battle line we are most interested in the Champagne 
front, the Chateau-Thierry sector, the famous St. Mihiel wedge, 
the front near St. Quentin tunnel where the Hindenburg line 
was broken, the front near Montbrehain where so many Congres- 
sional Medals were won, and the Verdun front where the great 
Argonne-Meuse offensive ended the war. We are most inter- 
ested in these sections because the South Carolina units were 
engaged in them. 

536. The Forty-Second in Chateau-Thierry Sector. The 
Forty-Second Division was moved from the Champagne front 
to the Chateau-Thierry front. In this attack the Forty-Second 
advanced rapidly to the Ourcq river where it fought for several 
days. On this front the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer 
Regiment kept the bridges in repair. On the night of August 
1, the One Hundred and Seventeenth was converted into an 
infantry regiment and ordered to attack next morning. The 
One Hundred and Seventeenth advanced to the farthest point 
reached by the division during the attack. 

537. First Fighting for the Thirtieth. On August 17, the 
Thirtieth Division took over an entire sector known as the Canal 
sector near Ypres in Belgium. On August 31 this division en- 
gaged with the British and the Twenty-Seventh American Divi- 
sion in an offensive. In this, its first fighting as a division, the 
Thirtieth captured all objectives including the town of Voor- 


mezeele. The Thirtieth advanced 1,500 yards, capturing 
prisoners, machine guns and rifles as it went, and identified a 
German division which the British had long been trying to 

538. American Offensive. On September 12 the Ameri- 
cans began an ofi'ensive of their own. Our troops succeeded in 
two days in driving the Germans out of a wedge they had held 
for four years. This wedge was known as the St. Mihiel salient. 
The Forty-Second was moved from the Chateau-Thierry front 
to take part in the St. Mihiel drive. During the attack the 
Forty-Second took more than a thousand prisoners from nine 
enemy divisions. It captured seven villages and seized large 
supplies of food, clothing, ammunition, guns and engineering 
material. During the St. Mihiel attack the One Hundred and 
Seventeenth Engineer Regiment was used as wire cutters, to 
keep the roads open, and to guide the infantry into position. 
The attack went forward on schedule time due to the efficiency 
of this regiment. 

539. Breaking the Hindenburg Line. On Sunday morn- 
ing, September 29, the Thirtieth Division, with the Twenty- 
Seventh Division on its left and the Forty-Sixth British Divi- 
sion on its right, attacked the Hindenburg line in front of the 
St. Quentin tunnel. This place was considered impregnable. 
It was protected by three lines of trenches and vast fields of 
barbed wire entanglements and machine gun nests. The tunnel 
was reinforced with an enormous amount of concrete and 
strengthened and fortified in every conceivable way. There 
was a complete underground system of chambers and galleries 
all wired with electric lights in which the German soldiers lived. 
It was the strongest stretch of the German lines and to break 
it seemed impossible. 

The Thirtieth Division, with the Twenty-Seventh American 
and the Forty-Sixth British Division, began the attack at five 
o'clock on the morning of September 29. The Thirtieth was 
the first to break through the Hindenburg line. Then it ad- 


vaneed farther and captured the tunnel with the German troops 
in it. After this the Thirtieth with the Twenty-Seventh Ameri- 
can and the Forty-Second British Divisions took a number of 
cities, defeating two German divisions and capturing nearly 
1,500 prisoners. The breaking of the Hindenburg line by the 
Thirtieth was one of the greatest feats of the war. 

540. More Fighting for the Thirtieth Division. The 
Thirtieth took over the front line near Montbrehain from the 
Second Australian Division after smashing the Hindenburg line. 
Some of the fiercest fighting done by the Thirtieth took place at 
this time and the soldiers of the division during these attacks 
won more medals for daring personal bravery than those of any 
other division in the American army during the war. In the 
fighting from October 8 to 11 the Thirtieth Division encountered 
units from fourteen German divisions. It captured over three 
dozen villages and towns and liberated the grateful French 
inhabitants from the Germans. The difficulties in the field of 
fighting were very great. The country was dotted with little 
villages, patches of woods and sunken roads which offered 
numerous strongholds and points of vantage for the enemy. 
With the protection of these towns and wooded places the enemy 
was able to maintain a machine gun defense which made advance 
difficult and exceedingly dangerous. With unexcelled bravery 
the Thirtieth advanced in the face of these dangers and diffi- 
culties, sweeping everything before it. 

541. Dozier's Gallantry. The attacks of the Thirtieth offer 
instances too numerous to recount of brave exploits by men 
from South Carolina. A mention of those exploits of men who 
were awarded the Congressional medal of honor, which is the 
highest any American soldier can receive, will give us an idea 
of the dangers and difficulties of the fighting and of the courage 
the men of the Thirtieth displayed. James C. Dozier of Rock 
Hill, first lieutenant. Company G, One Hundred and Eigh- 
teenth Infantry, Thirtieth Division, was painfully wounded in 
the shoulder during the fighting near the village of Montbre- 


hain on October 8. In spite of the wound he continued to lead 
his command with great bravery and skill. In the advance his 
command was held up by heavy machine gun fire of the enemy. 
Lieutenant Dozier disposed his men under cover and with one 
soldier advanced to attack the machine gun nest. Creeping up 
to the position in the face of the most intense fire he killed the 
entire enemy crew with hand grenades and his pistol. Then 
his command was able to advance. A little later Lieutenant 
Dozier captured a number of Germans whom he found hiding in 
a dugout near by. He was awarded the Congressional medal of 

542. Thomas Lee Hall of Fort Hill. Another exploit 
which won the Congressional medal for bravery during this 
advance of the Thirtieth was that of Sergeant Thomas Lee Hall 
of Company G, One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry, 
Thirtieth Division. This was also during the fighting near 
Montbreliain. Sergeant Hall's platoon, having overcome two 
enemy machine gun nests under his skilful leadership, was 
stopped by machine gun fire of great intensity. Sergeant Hall 
disposed his men under cover and advanced alone. He killed 
five of the crew of the machine gun post with his bayonet, after 
which his platoon was able to advance. While attacking an- 
other machine gun nest later in the day this gallant soldier fell, 
mortally wounded. 

543. Garey Evans Foster of Inman. Still another exploit 
which won the Congressional medal was that of Sergeant Garey 
Evans Foster, Company G, One Hundred and Eighteenth In- 
fantry, Thirtieth Division, near Montbrehain on October 8. 
Sergeant Foster's company was held up by violent machine gun 
fire from a sunken road. Sergeant Foster with an officer went 
forward to attack the machine gun nests. The officer was 
wounded as they advanced, but Sergeant Foster continued alone 
in the face of a heavy fire and with hand grenades and pistol 
killed several of tlie enemy and captured eighteen. 

544. Richmond H. Hilton of Westville. A few days 


after the brilliant exploits around Moiitbrehain, another South 
Carolinian won the Congressional medal by his courageous action 
at Brancourt. This was Sergeant Richmond H. Hilton, Com- 
pany H, One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry, Thirtieth 
Division. While Sergeant Hilton's company was advancing 
through the village of Brancourt it was held up by intense fire 
from a machine gun nest hidden among shell holes at the edge 
of the town. Sergeant Hilton, in advance of a few soldiers who 
accompanied him, pressed on towards the nest firing with his 
rifle until his ammunition was exhausted and then using his 
pistol. He killed six of the enemy and captured ten. In this 
daring advance Sergeant Hilton received a wound from bursting 
shell which resulted in the loss of an arm. 

545. James D. Heriot of Providence. The day after Ser- 
geant Hilton's exploit at Brancourt, Corporal James D. Heriot, 
Company I, One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry, Thirtieth 
Division, received the Congressional medal for gallantry at the 
village of Vaux-Andigny in France. Corporal Heriot, with four 
soldiers, organized a group to attack a machine gun nest which 
had been inflicting heavy damage on his company. In the 
advance two of his men were killed and because of the heavy 
fire on all sides the remaining two sought shelter. Corporal 
Heriot, however, with fixed bayonet went on alone and charged 
the machine gun nest. He forced the enemy to surrender. He 
received several wounds and later in the day, while charging 
another machine gun nest, he was killed. 

546. Gallantry of Corporal Villepigue of Camden. Three 
days later another South Carolinian received the coveted medal 
of honor for gallantry at the same village of Vaux-Andigny. 
This was Corporal John C. Villepigue, Company M, One Hun- 
dred and Eighteenth Infantry, Thirtieth Division. It was 
towards the end of the offensive in which the Thirtieth took 
such a great part and Corporal Villepigue was sent out to scout 
through the village of Vaux-Andigny. One of his men was 
killed and the other wounded by machine gun fire. Corporal 


Villepigue continued alone for five hundred yards in advance 
of his platoon. In the face of a heavy machine ^m and artillery 
fire he came upon four of the enemy in a dugout. He attacked 
them and killed them with a hand grenade. Crawling forward 
he rushed a machine gun nest. Here he killed four and captured 
six of the enemy and took two light machine guns. After being 
joined by his platoon he was severely wounded in the arm. 

547. Last Fighting of the Thirtieth. After the fighting in 
which the villages and towns of Montbrehain, Bancourt, Vaux- 
Andigny and about three dozen others were captured by the 
Thirtieth, this division was retired for a few days for rest. It 
then took over the right half of the sector held by the Twenty- 
Seventh American Division. On October 17, 18 and 19, the 
Thirtieth captured a number of towns and about 400 prisoners. 
The fighting was difficult and dangerous, but the Thirtieth 
steadily advanced in spite of stubborn opposition. The division 
was then withdrawn for a much needed rest and the war ended 
just as the Thirtieth was about to be put into the trenches again. 

548. Praise for the Thirtieth. During this offensive the 
Thirtieth won the merited praise of Field Marshal Haig, the 
British general, General Pershing and numerous other high 
officers. The fact that the break in the impregnable Hindenburg 
line was actually made on the divisional front is ample reason 
for the Thirtieth to be proud of the results of its fighting. Field 
Marshal Haig said of the Division that ''through three weeks 
of almost coTitinuous fighting you advanced from one success to 
another, overcoming all resistance, beating off numerous counter- 
attacks, and capturing several thousand prisoners and many 
guns." The French inhabitants of the many towns liberated by 
the Thirtieth addressed letters of gratitude to the commander of 
the division. The Thirtieth covered itself with glory. 

549. The One Hundred Eighteenth Infantry, "South Caro- 
lina's Own." If any regiment could be called "South Caro- 
lina's Own" it is the One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry. 
It was composed chiefly of men from the old First South Caro- 


lina Infantry, National Guard, which was ordered to Greenville 
to make part of the Thirtieth Division. This regiment left home 
in command of Colonel Peter K. McCully, Jr., of Anderson, but 
without good reason this officer was transferred later on. The 
One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry was in the very thick 
of the fight at the St. Quentin Canal sector where the Hinden- 
burg line was broken. This regiment bore the burden of South 
Carolina's casualties and carried away the largest share of in- 
dividual medals in the United States Army. The six Congres- 
sional medals already mentioned were won by men of the One 
Hundred and Eighteenth. This regiment lost heavily in killed 
and wounded. 

When Colonel McCully led the One Hundred and Eigh- 
teenth into Belgium he took the first American regiment into 
that country. The One Hundred and Eighteenth pitched camp 
at Dirty Bucket Camp about five miles behind the ruins of Ypres. 
This regiment was gradually introduced into the front line and 
took prominent part in all the activities, already pictured, of 
the Thirtieth Division. 

550. The One Hundred Fifth Ammunition Train. The 
nucleus of the One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train was 
the old Second South Carolina Infantry, National Guard, with a 
record for gallantry extending back to the War of 1812. 
Colonel Holmes B. Springs of Georgetown was commander of 
all the divisional trains of which the One Hundred and Fifth 
Ammunition Train was a part. Lieutenant-Colonel W. W. Lewis 
of York commanded the One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition 
Train. In addition to commanding the divisional trains Colonel 
Springs was on the staff of the division. The divisional trains 
did a vast amount of arduous and dangerous work in France 
carrying ammunition and supplies under the most dangerous 
circumstances to many divisions. 

551, The End of War in Sight. The German resistance 
was being steadily broken by the numerous attacks of the 
Allies. We can tell here only of the drives in which South 


Carolina units took part, but all along the great battle line Foch 
had thrown the allied forces in attacks which were slowly but 
surely defeating the Germans, This was the situation in Novem- 
ber, 1918, w^hen the American First Army began a wonderful 
drive northwest of Verdun. In this the Forty-Second and the 
Eighty-First Divisions took part. The drive was through the 
great Argonne Forest in France. Our troops had to advance 
against row upon row of machine gun nests and fortified de- 
fenses of every description. It was at a dreadful loss of life, 
but steadily the Americans advanced through the forest. By 
November 7 they had reached Sedan. This drive cut through 
the long German line running from Switzerland to the North 
Sea and divided the German Army. Realizing that they were 
defeated the Germans begged for an armistice. 

552. Gallant Fighting of the Eighty-First. On November 
6, the Eighty -First Division began its front line service, still 
attached to the French corps. The Eighty-First received orders 
on the night of November 8 to attack the Germans on the 
Woevre plain, south of Verdun. This was the last phase of the 
great Meuse-Argonne offensive. This sector on the "Woevre 
plain was a part of the main Hindenburg system of defenses. 
The Germans had held this position since early in the war. 
They were strongly fortified and the marshy plain was full of 
barbed wire entanglements. The Eighty-First had to make its 
way through this field to get at the enemy. 

553. The Last Attack by the Eighty-First Division. The 
Eighty-First attacked early on the morning of November 9. 
The division was confronted by three German divisions. The 
Eighty-First attacked with irresistible dash and bravery. The 
division advanced steadily, and forced the position. The Ger- 
mans were falling back, though fighting stubbornly, when the 
signing of the Armistice ended the war. The Eighty-First 
fought until eleven o'clock on Armistice day, November 11, 
1918. The Eighty-First suffered many of its 1,506 casualties on 
that day. 


554. The Forty-Second in the Argonne-Meuse Offensive. 

The Forty-Second also took part in the great blow the Allies 
struck west of the Meuse river, the last blow of the war. March- 
ing and fighting day and night the Forty-Second thrust through 
the advancing lines of the First American Army of which it 
was a part and drove the enemy across the Meuse. The Forty- 
Second captured the heights dominating the river before Sedan 
and reached the farthest point in enemy lines attained by any 
American troops. During this offensive which marked the last 
fighting, the One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer Regiment 
carried on the same work of keeping roads open, wire cutting 
and assisting tanks. Often the work had to be carried on with- 
out suitable instruments, or necessary food. The task of pass- 
ing the artillery, the supplies, ammunition and food devolved 
upon the engineers. During this period Major J. M. Johnson 
became colonel of the regiment. 

555. Long Service of the Forty-Second Division. The 
Forty-Second had been in France over a year when the Armis- 
tice was signed. In February, 1918, this division went into the 
lines to stay almost continuously until the end of the war. Out 
of the 224 days after it entered the lines, it was actually en- 
gaged with the enemy 180 days. The remainder of the time 
was spent in moving from front to front — from Champagne to 
Chateau-Thierry, from St. Mihiel to Verdun for the last great 
offensive in the Argonne — ^or in close reserve behind the front. 
The Forty-Second was the only American division to assist in 
the defeat of the great German offensive of July 15 in Cham- 
pagne. From that time on it took part in every large American 
operation. When the war ended, the Forty-Second, as it lay 
before Sedan, had reached the northernmost point attained by 
the First American Army. 

556. The Congressional* Medal. Seventy-eight American 
soldiers received the Congressional medal of honor. This is the 
highest award any American soldier can win. The medal of 
honor is awarded "for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity 


above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy." 
South Carolinians received six of the seventy-eight medals 
awarded. Only two states, one the large one of New York, which 
received ten, and Illinois, which received eight, got a larger 
number than the small state of South Carolina. In the Southern 
states Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama and Texas 
received one Congressional medal each. 

557. The Distinguished Service Cross. The Distinguished 
Service Cross is awarded for personal bravery, but of not so dis- 
tinguished a character as that rewarded by the medal of honor. 
South Carolinians received eighty-nine distinguished service 
crosses. Besides these many South Carolina officers and men 
were awarded medals by the British and French governments. 
A knowledge of the exploits which merited these crosses and 
medals gives us a vivid picture of the courage and daring and 
unexcelled gallantry of our men who fought overseas. We see 
them in little groups or alone charging a deadly machine gun 
nest in order that their companies might advance. We see them 
dashing out in full view of the enemy, with shells bursting all 
around them, to bring in some fallen comrade. We see wounded 
men refusing to be carried back to first aid stations because of 
taking fighting men away from the trenches. We see them 
sometimes wounded fatally, yet staying at their posts. We see 
them working tirelessly and fearlessly in the rain and mud, often 
without rest or food, carrying messages under dangerous condi- 
tions, acting as stretcher bearers, giving first aid coolly under 
heavy fire without regard to personal safety. We see them 
fighting with pistols, bayonets, hand grenades, machine guns 
and always stubbornly advancing. We see an officer with two 
soldiers attack forty Germans and their four machine guns and 
force them to surrender. From shell hole to shell hole we see our 
troops crawling, or picking their way through barbed wire en- 
tanglements, or fighting in trenches, or charging openly with 
fixed bayonets in the face of a deadly fire. The medals and 
crosses are symbols of the courage and gallantry and of the effi- 
cient fighting of the South Carolina soldiers. 


558. Looking Backward. Two hundred and fifty years 
ago South Carolina was a wilderness unbroken by roads and 
inhabited only by Indians. A moving picture of the life of the 
State — only about six generations — might show a pioneer coming 
to Charles Town in 1670 in company with two hundred other 
strong souls. We should see this pioneer perhaps settling 
permanently at Charleston or perhaps going up a river into the 
pine lands, clearing ground for planting, tending cattle and 
defending himself from the Indians. The pioneer's children 
would witness the thick settling of the Low-Country, the move- 
ment of settlers into the Up-Country, and the growth of an 
independent spirit developing into a desire for separation from 
England. The third generation fight England, win their inde- 
pendence largely through the deathless courage of the South 
Carolina Partisans and South Carolina becomes a state in the 
United States. The fourth generation marks the marvelous de- 
velopment of the United States and sees South Carolina, at this 
time a wealthy slave owning and cotton growing State, become 
a power in national affairs. This generation also has a part in 
serious quarrels over the tariff and slavery which occur between 
the North and the South. The fifth generation fights the United 
States to get out of the Union. Made bankrupt by the brave 
attempt, this generation starts rebuilding its fallen fortunes and 
lays the foundation for a great manufacturing development. 
The children of the fifth generation find themselves forced into 
the World War. They go into the struggle wholeheartedly, re- 
gardless of cost, as South Carolinians have always done, and 
take a brave part in winning the war which saves civilization 
from the German menace. 

559. Looking Forward. To develop a proper state pride, 
it is necessary for South Carolinians to know the history and 
resources of their State. South Carolina has a climate which 
permits the growing of crops the year round. South Carolina 
has a soil which produces in abundance everything that man 
needs to eat and a soil and climate adapted to producing cotton 


for his clothing. South Carolina has rivers which supply 
electric power to mills to use in making this cotton into cloth of 
any texture, pattern and quality. South Carolina borders the 
ocean and has harbors large enough and deep enough to develop 
a rich commerce with the world. South Carolina has mountains 
and wonderful scenery only waiting to be developed into pleasure 
grounds for her people. South Carolina has a homogeneous 
population descended from the best of the Old "World stock. 
South Carolina has within her borders two races, the white and 
the black, who can work side by side, if untroubled by outside 
interference, to develop the resources of the State. No state in 
the Union has a prouder past than South Carolina. Studying 
the State's record will enable us to realize upon what a solid 
foundation for future greatness the present generation has to 



Compiled by A. S. Salley, Jr., Secretary of the Historical Com- 
mission of South Carolina 

Under Proprietary Government 

1. William Sayle, March 17, 1670-March 4, 1671. (Named 

by Sir John Yeamans in a commission from the Lords 

2. Joseph West, March 4, 1671-April 19, 1672. (Elected by 

the Council to succeed Sayle, resigned.) 

3. Sir John Yeamans, April 19, 1672-August, 1674. (Ap- 

pointed by the Palatine. Died in August, 1674.) 

4. Joseph West, August 13, 1674-October, 1682. (Elected by 

the Council upon the death of Yeamans, a commission 
from the Palatine being on its way to him at the time. 
From June to October, 1675, during the absence of Gov- 
ernor West, John Godfrey, by choice of the Council, acted 
as Governor.) 

5. Joseph ]\Iorton, October, 1682-August, 1684. (Appointed 

by the Palatine.) 

6. Sir Richard Kyrle, August, 1684. (Appointed by the Pala- 

tine. Died in less than a month after assuming office.) 

7. Joseph West, August 30, 1684- July 1, 1685. (Elected by 

the Council to succeed Kyrle, and was later appointed by 
the Palatine. Resigned in June, 1685.) 

8. Robert Quary, June-October, 1685. (Elected by the Coun- 

cil to succeed West.) 



9. Joseph Morton, October, 1685-November, 1686. (Ap 
pointed by the Palatine.) 

10. James Colleton, 1686-1690. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

11. Seth Sothell, 1690-1692. (Assumed the governorship by 

right of being a Proprietor.) 

12. Philip Ludwell, 1692-1693. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

13. Thomas Smith, 1693-1694. (Appointed by the Palatine. 

Died in November, 1694.) 

14. Joseph Blake, November, 1694- August 17, 1695. (Elected 

by the Council on the death of Smith.) 

15. John Archdale, August 17, 1695-October 29, 1696. (As- 

sumed the governorship by right of being a Proprietor. 
Retired October 29, 1696, appointing Joseph Blake 
deputy governor in his stead.) 

16. Joseph Blake, October 29, 1696-September 7, 1700. (Ap- 

pointed deputy governor by Archdale and subsequently 
assumed the governorship in right of being a Proprietor.) 

17. James Moore, 1700-1702. (Elected by the Council in Sep- 

tember, 1700, on the death of Blake.) 

18. Sir Nathaniel Johnson, 1702-1710. (Appointed by the 


19. Edward Tynte, 1710. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

20. Robert Gibbes, 1710-1711. (Elected by the Council on the 

death of Tynte.) 

21. Charles Craven, 1711-1716. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 

22. Robert Daniell, 1716-1717. (Appointed by Craven as 

deputy. ) 

23. Robert Johnson, 1717-1719. (Appointed by the Palatine.) 


Under Royal Government 

1. James Moore, 1719-1721. (Son of 17. Elected by a con- 
vention of the people, who had overthrown the govern- 
ment of the Proprietors.) 


2. Sir Francis Nicholson, 1721-1729. (Provisional governor, 

appointed by the Crown. During his absence, from 
1724 to 1729, Arthur Middleton, President of the Council, 
administered the government.) 

3. Robert Johnson, 1729-1735. 

4. Thomas Broughton, 1735-1737. (Lieutenant-Governor act- 

ing governor, with full powers of governor.) 

5. William Bull, 1737-1743. (President of the Council, and 

later Lieutenant-Governor, acting governor.) 

6. James Glen, 1743-1756. 

7. William Henry Lyttelton, 1756-1760. 

8. William Bull, 1760-1761. (Son of 5. Lieutenant-Governor 

acting governor.) 

9. Thomas Boone, 1761-1764. 

10. William Bull, 1764-1766. (Lieutenant-Governor acting 

governor. ) 

11. Lord Charles Greville Montagu, 1766-1773. (During the 

absences of Governor Montagu in 1768 and from 1769 to 
1771 Lieutenant-Governor Bull acted as governor.) 

12. William Bull, 1773-1775. (Lieutenant-Governor acting 

governor. ) 

13. Lord William Campbell. 1775. 

14. Henry Laurens, 1775-1776. (President of the Council of 

Safety, an executive body organized from a congress of 
the people, administering the government.) 


Under State Government 


1. John Rutledge, 1776-1778. 

2. Rawlins Lowndes, 1778-1779. 



1. John Rutledge, 1779-1782^ 

2. John Mathews, 1782-1783. 

3. Benjamin Guerard, 1783-1785. 

4. William Moultrie, 1785-1787. 

5. Thomas Pinckney, 1787-1789. 

6. Charles Pinckney, 1789-1792^ 

7. William Moultrie, 1792-1794. 

8. Arnoldus Vander Horst, 1794-1796. 

9. Charles Pinckney, 1796-1798. 

10. Edward Rutledge, 1798-1800. (Died in January, 1800, and 

was succeeded by John Drayton, lieutenant-governor.) 

11. John Drayton, 1800-1802. (Lieutenant-Governor succeed- 

ing Edward Rutledge, deceased; re-elected in December, 
1800, for a full term.) 

12. James Burchill Richardson, 1802-1804. 

13. Paul Hamilton, 1804-1806. 

14. Charles Pinckney, 1806-1808. 

15. John Drayton, 1808-1810. 

16. Henry Middleton, 1810-1812. 

17. Joseph Alston, 1812-1814. 

18. David R. Williams, 1814-1816. 

19. Andrew Pickens, 1816-1818. 

20. John Geddes, 1818-1820. 

21. Thomas Bennett, 1820-1822. 

22. John Lyde Wilson, 1822-1824. 

' The Constitution of 1778 fixed ttie meeting time of the General Assembly 
in January and the election of governor by that body followed at the session 
succeeding the general election for the General Assembly, which was held in 
the autumns of the even years. 

- Governor Rutlodge's successor should have been chosen at the session of 
1781, but the State being in the hands of the British no general election could 
be held in 1780 or any legislative election in 1781. 

3 The Constitution of 1790 changed the meeting time of the General 
Assembly from January following general elections to November following, and 
when Governor Pinckney's term expired in January, 1791, the General Assembly 
re-elected him for the short term ending November, 1792. 


23. Richard Irvine Manning, 1824-1826. 

24. John Taylor, 1826-1828. 

25. Stephen D. Miller, 1828-1830. 

26. James Hamilton, Jr., 1830-1832. 

27. Robert Y. Hayne, 1832-1834. 

28. George McDuffie, 1834-1836. 

29. Pierce Mason Butler, 1836-1838. 

30. Patrick Noble, 1838-1840. (Died April 7, 1840 ; succeeded 

by B. K. Henagan, lieutenant-governor.) 

31. B. K. Henagan, 1840. (Lieutenant-Governor succeeding 

Patrick Noble, deceased.) 

32. John Peter Richardson, 1840-1842. (Nephew of 12.) 

33. James H. Hammond, 1842-1844. 

34. William Aiken, 1844-1846. 

35. David Johnson, 1846-1848. 

36. Whitemarsh B. Seabrook, 1848-1850. 

37. John Hugh Means, 1850-1852. 

38. John Laurence Manning, 1852-1854. (Son of 23.) 

39. James Hopkins Adams, 1854-1856. 

40. Robert F. W. Allston, 1856-1858. 

41. William H. Gist, 1858-1860. 

42. Francis Wilkinson Pickens, 1860-1862. (Son of 19.) 

43. Milledge Luke Bonham, 1862-1864. 

44. Andrew Gordon Magrath, 1864-1865. (Arrested by the 

Federal Government, sent to prison and deposed as gov- 

45. Benjamin Franklin Perry, June-November, 1865. (Pro- 

visional governor appointed by President Johnson.) 

46. James Lawrence Orr, 1865-1868. (Deposed by Act of 

Federal Congress reconstructing the Southern States, 
General Canby acting as military governor until a new 
government could be established.) 

47. Robert K. Scott, 1868-1872. (Elected under the new con- 

stitution ; inaugurated in July ; re-elected in November, 


48. Franklin J. Moses, Jr., 1872-1874. 

49. Daniel H. Chamberlain, 1874-1876. 

50. Wade Hampton, 1876-1879. (Re-elected for a second term. 

in 1878; elected United States Senator and resigned in 
February, 1879 ; succeeded by W. D. Simpson, lieutenant- 
governor. ) 

51. William Dunlap Simpson, 1879-1880. (Lieutenant-Gover- 

nor succeeding Wade Hampton in February ; resigned in 
September, 1880, having been elected Chief-Justice of 
the Supreme Court.) 

52. Thomas B. Jeter, 1880. (President of the Senate succeed- 

ing W. D. Simpson, resigned.) 

53. Johnson Hagood, 1880-1882. 

54. Hugh Smith Thompson, 1882-1886. (Re-elected for a second 

term in 1884; resigned in July, 1886, having been ap- 
pointed Assistant Secretary of the Treasury of the United 
States by President Cleveland.) 

55. John C. Sheppard, July-December, 1886. (Lieutenant-Gov- 

ernor succeeding Hugh S. Thompson, resigned.) 

56. John Peter Richardson, 1886-1890. (Son of 32. Two 


57. Benjamin Ryan Tillman, 1890-1894. (Two terms.) 

58. John Gary Evans, 1894-1897\ 

59. William H. Ellerbe, 1897-1899. (Elected for a second term 

in 1898, but died in June, 1899 ; succeeded by M. B. 
McSweeney, lieutenant-governor. 

60. Miles B. McSweeney, 1899-1903. (Lieutenant-Governor suc- 

ceeding W. H. Ellerbe, deceased ; re-elected in 1900 for a 
full term.) 

61. Duncan Clinch Heyward, 1903-1907. (Two terms.) 

62. Martin F. Ansel, 1907-1911. (Two terms.) 

63. Coleman Livingston Blease, 1911-1915. (Served almost 

1 The Constitution of 1805 changed the nieetinj? time of the General 
Assembly .infl the inauguration of the governor to January, thereby lengthening 
Governor Evans's term into 1897. 


two terms, resigning five days before the expiration of his 
second term; succeeded by Charles A. Smith, lieutenant- 

64. Charles A. Smith, January 14-19, 1915. (Lieutenant-Gov- 

ernor succeeding C. L. Blease, resigned.) 

65. Richard Irvine Manning, 1915-1919 (Two terms. Grand- 

son of 23.) 

66. Robert A. Cooper, 1919 — (Re-elected in 1920 for a second 



Abbeville, 72 

Abbeville County, 64, 121, 155, 157, 173 

Abolitionists, 167, 168 

Adams, James H., 180 

Aiken County, 170, 224 

Aiken, Wm., 170, 171^ 

Albemarle, Duke of, 7 

Aldrich, A. P., 215 

AUston, Robert F. W., 180 

Alston, Joseph, 154 

Alston, Joseph K., 253 

Anderson, 226 

Anderson College, 248 

Anderson County, 100, 218 

Archdale, John, 25 

Anderson, Richard H., 184, 192 

Ansel, Martin F., 256 

Arsenal, The, 169 

Ashepoo River, 125 

Ashley, Lord, Anthony, 7, 10, 16 

Ashley River, 10, 67, 84, 104 

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, 250 

Attakullakulla, 60 

Augusta, 64, 106, 128, 169 

"Back Country," 51, 65, 73, 75, 91, 96 

Baptist Church, 70, 152, 247 

Barbadoes, Island of, 9, 13, 16, 17, 38 

Barnwell, Capt. John, 89, 90 

Barnwell, Col. John, 31, 47, 50 

Barnwell County, 226 

Bates, Wm., 146 

Battles: at siege of Charles Town, 104-105 
Bigin Church, 130; Black Mingo, 117 
Blackstocks, 121; Camden, 114-115, 159 
Cedar Springs, 113; Churubusco, 172 
Cowpens, 123; Eutaw Springs, 131-132 
Fish Dam Ford, 121; Fishing Creek, 116 
Ft. Moultrie, 98-99; Guilford Court 
House, 126, 131; Halfway Swamp, 124; 
Hammond's Store, 121; Hanging Rock, 
113; Hobkirk's Hill, 126; King's Moun- 
tain, 118-120; Lexington, 87; Manassas 
(First), 187; Manassas (Second), 193; 
Musgrove's Mills, 117; off the coast during 
1812, 154; of Picardy, 273; of the Iron- 
clads, 196; Port's Ferry, 113; Quenby 
Bridge, 130; Rocky Mount, 113; Seces- 
sionville, 191; Tarcote Swamp, 117; 
Wiggin's Hill, 125; Williamson's 

Plantation, 113, 121; Yorktown, 132 

Beaufort, 83, 106, 210, 215 

Beaufort County, 2 

Beaufort district, 125 

Beaufort Town, 32, 33 

Bee, Barnard E., 187 

Bennett, Thos., 158 

Berkeley County, 20, 254 

Berkeley, Lord, John, 7 

Berkeley, Sir William, 7, 25 

Bermuda, 9 

Bigin Church, 130 

"Black Code," 212 

Black River, 55 

Black Swamp, 103 

Blake, Joseph, 26, 28 

Blease, Coleman L., 256 

Blue Ridge Mountains, 61, 158 

Blue, Victor, 253 

Bonham, M. L., 187, 197 

Bonnet, Stede, 38 

Boone, Thomas, 67, 69, 80 

Breach Inlet, 97 

Brewton, Miles, 127 

Broad River, 91, 121 

Brooks, Preston S., 180 

Broughton, Thomas, 56 

Brown, Thos., 91, 92 

Bull, Wm. (the elder), 57, 58 

Bull, Wm. (the younger), 62, 65, 80, 89 

Butler, M. C, 193, 225 

Butler, Pierce, 140, 141 

Butler, Pierce M., 167, 171 

Butler, Wm., 133 

Cacique, 7, 9 

Cainhoy, 226 

Calhoun County, 127 

Calhoun family, 64, 155 

Calhoun, John C, 154, 155-156, 165, 109, 177 

Calhoun, Patrick, 64 

Camden, 83, 114, 127, 142, 208 

Campbell, Lord Wm., 89, 92, 99 

Camp Jackson, 266 

Camp Sevier, 266 

Camp Wadsworth, 206 

Canals, 157-158 

Capers, ElUson, 191 

Capers's Island, 155 

Cardross, Lord, 21, 32 

Carolina, Province of: boundaries, 7; 
charter for, 8; churches in, 72; counties, 
20; during Royal Period, 69-76; English 
settlers reach, 9; first crops, 17; free 
schools, 30, 72; freedom of religion in, 8; 
given to Lords Proprietors, 7; immigration 
to, 16, 21, 45, 54; Indian trade, 17; 
indigo raised in, 59; laws for, 9, 50; 
Loyalists in, 91; made a State, 95; militia 
in, 19; nobility in, 8; overthrows Pro- 
prietors, 46^8; piracy on coast of, 36-44 
pirates in, 18; population of, 48, 69 
professional men in, 71; rice grown in, 24 
■ roads in, 19; royal governor for, 50 
taken by king, 48; taxation, 23, 45, 78 

"Carpet baggers," 215 




Carteret, Sir George, 7 

Catawba River, 112 

Catholic schools, 251 

Cattel, Benjamin, 89 

Cattel, Wm., 89 

Chamberlain, Daniel H., 223, 227 

Charles II, 7, 9, 18, 23 

Charles IX, 1, 3, 6 

Charleston: and railroads, 170; arms vessels, 
154; attacked by Federals, 190; College 
of, 245; cotton market, 158; cotton mill 
in, 145; Exposition, 255; harbor blockad- 
ed, 196; hterary group at, 173-174; 
Republican convention at, 216; Seces- 
sion convention at, 182; Washington's 
visit to, 142 

Charleston Light Dragoons, 200, 270 

Charles Town: British capture, 104, 106; 
British fleet in harbor, 98, 104; British 
troops at, 65, 82; churches, 70; delegates 
meet at, 85; exports, 17,49, 70; fire, 27 
58; first newspaper, 56; founded, 10 
free library in, 26; free school at, 31 
French fleet threatens, 29; Georgia colony 
arrives at, 56; growth of, 17, 48, 70; in 
Berkeley County, 20; library society, 73; 
manners and customs, 73; merchants, 70; 
moved to Oyster Point, 12; name changed, 
138; overland trade, 101; piracy injures 
trade of, 37; planters' houses in, 75; 
Spaniards threaten, 13; stamped paper 
in, 79; "tea party," 86 

Charles Town Baptist Association, 152 

Charles Town Library Society, 73 

Cheraw, 159, 208 

Cheraws, 83 

Cherokee County, 123 

Chester, 233 

Chester County, 113, 118, 121 

Cheves, Langdon, 154, 157 

Chicora College, 250 

Church of England, 15, 101 

Citadel, The, 169, 246 

Clarendon County, 124 

Clarendon, Earl of, 7 

Clemson College, 238, 246 

Clemson, Thos. G., 237, 247 

Clinton College, 250 

Chnton, Sir Henry, 97, 104, 106 

Coker College, 248 

Coker, James L., 248 

Coligny, Admiral, 1 

Collector of King's Revenue, 23, 77 

College of Charleston, 174, 245 

Colleton County, 21, 156, 254 

Colleton, James, 24 

Colleton, Sir John, 7 

Columbia, 124, 142, 159, 221 

Columbia College, 249 

Committee of ninety-nine, 86, 93 

Commons House, 50, 57, 68, 93 

Compulsory education, 259 

Confederate Home College, 251 

Congarees, 62, 66 

Congaree River, 55, 124, 127 

Columbia Theological Seminary, 250 

Congregational Church, 70 

Continental Congress, 86, 90, 108, 137 

Converse College 250 

Converse, D. E., 250 

Cooper River, 12, 86, 149 

Cooper, Robert A., 256 

CornwalUs, Lord, 106, 114, 120, 123 

Cotton: cloth manufactured, 145, 170, 232; 
effect on transportation, 158; gin invented, 
143; grown more widely, 143-144; in- 
creases demand for slaves, 144; low 
prices for, 236, 241 

Cotton seed crushing, 233 

Council, Lords Proprietors', 15, 37, 40 

Council of Safety, 88, 91, 93 

Council, Royal, 50, 57, 62, 101 

Courts, 83 

Cow drivers, 52 

Cow pens, 52 

Cowpens, 118 

Craven, Charles, 30, 32, 33, 35 

Craven county, 20 

Craven, William, Earl of, 7 

Gumming, Sir Alexander, 54 

Cuningham, "Bloody Bill," 133 

Daniell, Robt., 28, 35, 36 
Darlington Guards, 252 
"Darlington War," 240 
DeKalb, Baron, 115, 159 
Dennis, John B., 228 
Dewees's Island, 155 
Dickinson, J. P., 172 
Dispensary system, 240, 257 
Dorchester, 130 
Dozier, James C, 277 
Drayton, John, 149, 150 
Drayton, Wm. Henry, 88, 91, 95 
Due West Female College, 250 

Edgefield, 133, 225, 228 

Edisto Island, 23 

Edisto Rifles, 252 

Edisto River, 55, 133 

Eighty-First Division, 270, 272 

Ellenton riot, 226 

Ellerbe, Thos., 252 

Ellerbe, W. H., 252 

Elliott, Barnard, 89 

Elliott, Stephen, 198 

English church, 17 

Enoree River, 92, 146 

Episcopal church, 70, 72, 101, 151 

Erskine College, 250 

Estatoe, 66 

Evans, John Gary, 241 

Evans, N. G., 187 

Eveleigh, Nicholas, 89 

Fairfield County, 218 

Farmers' movement, 236 

Ferguson, Colonel, 117, 120 

Fire arrows, 127 

Flag, State, 94, 172 

Fletchall, Thos., 91, 94 

Forts: at Augusta, 128; at Charles Town, 
12, 30, 54; at Goose Creek, 34; Balfour, 
125; Caroline, 5; Charles, 3, 4; Char- 
lotte, 90; Gowen's, 133; Loudoun, 61, 65; 
Prince George, 61, 63, 66; Sumter, 183, 
197; Watson, 126, 128 

Forty-Second Division, 270 

Foster, Garey Evans, 278 



Freedmen's Bureau, 214 
Fundamental Constitutions, S, 11, 15 
Furman, Richard, 248 
Furman University, 248 

Gadsden, Christopher, 62, 79, 89, 134 

Garden, Alexander, 71 

Geddes, John, 158 

George I, 36, 47, 50 

George II, 54, 77 

George III, 82, 87 

Georgetown, 72, 86, 129 

Georgetown County, 159 

Gibbes, Robert, 30 

Gibbes, Wm., 88 

Gist, Wm. H., 180 

Gladden, A. H., 172 

Glen, James, 58, 61 

Gonzales, Robt. ElUott, 260 

Goose Creek, 34 

Granby, 124, 128 

Granite quarries, 234 

Graniteville mill, 170 

Great Peedee River, 112 

Great Warrior, 62, 63 

Greene, Nathaniel, 121, 126, 131 

Greenville, 233, 248 

Greenville County, 100, 133, 146 

Greenville district, 145 

Greenville Woman's College, 248 

Greenwood, 249 

Gregg, Maxcy, 184, 194 

Gregg, Wm., 170 

Guerard, Benjamin, 137, 138 

Guerard, Peter Jacob, 25 

Haddrell's Point, 94 

Hagood, Johnson, 184, 204 

Hall, Thos. Lee, 278 

Hamburg, 169, 224 

Hamburg riot, 224 * 

Hamilton, Paul, 150 

Hamilton, James, Jr., 165 

Hammett, Henry Pinckney, 233 

Hammond, James H., 169 

Hampton, 252 

Hampton campaign, 226 

Hampton, Wade, (the elder), 126, 130, 154 

Hampton, Wade (the younger), 187, 193, 202, 

225 227 
Harden, Wm., 124, 130, 133 
Harleston, Isaac, 89 
Hayne, Isaac, 130, 131 
Hayne, Paul Hamilton, 174 
Hayne, Robt., Y., 161, 164, 170 
Henagan, B. K., 167 
Heriot, James D., 279 
Heyward, Daniel, 145 
Heyward, D. C, 256 
Heyward, Thos., Jr., 100, 145 
Hill factory, 146 
Hill, Leonard, 146 
Hill, Wm., 118 
Hindenburg line, 276 
Hobkirk's Hill, 126, 127 
Horry County, 254 
Horry, Daniel, 89, 124, 133 
Horry, Elias, 170 
Horry, Peter, 89, 124, 133 
Horse racing, 74 

Huger, Benjamin, 192 
Huger, Francis, 89 
Huger, Isaac, 89 
Huguenot church, 70, 72 
Huguenots, 1, 16, 67, 73 
Hunkidori club, 229 
Hydroelectric plants, 258 
Hyrne, Edmund, 89 

Independent Battalion, 252 

Indians: aid British, 103; Appalachian, 29, 
33; Cherokee, 51, 54, 60-68, 78, 92, 100, 
133; Creek, 33; French among, 53, 60; in 
London, 54; Kiawah, 9, 11; Kussoe, 12; 
massacre Calhouns, 65; slaves, 18; Stono, 
11; trade with, 17; tribes in Carolina, 
10; Tuscarora, 31; welcome French, 3; 
Westo, 9, 11; with St. Augustine 
expedition, 29; Yemassee, 32 

Indian traders, 32, 52, 110 

Indigo, 59, 70, 77, 102, 143 

Irish colony, 55 

Izard, Ralph, 137 

Jacksonborough, 133 

Jails, 83 

Jamaica, 17, 28 

James II, 23, 24 

James Island, 145, 191, 199 

Jasper, Sergeant, 99 

Jenkins, Micah, 192 

Jeter, Thos. B., 231 

Johnson, David, 171 

Johnson, J. M., 271, 283 

Johnson, Robt., 36, 39, 46, 56, 89 

Johnson, Sir Nathaniel, 29, 30 

Jones, Wilie, 253 

Judicial districts, 83 

Keowee, 54, 61 
Kershaw, Joseph B., 194 
"King Cotton," 143, 232 
Kirkland, Moses, 91, 92 
Ku-Klux Klan, 220-222 
Kyrle, Sir Richard, 22 

Lacey, Edward, 118, 119 

La Chere, 4, 5 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 158, 274 

Lancaster County, 112, 113, 175 

Lander College, 249 

Lander, Samuel, 250 

Landgrave, 9 

Laurens County, 117, 228 

Laurens, Henry, 70, 95, 137 

Laurens, John, 102, 134, 140 

Lebby, Wm., 233 

Lee, Charles, 97 

Le Feboure, 29 

Legare, Hugh Swinton, 173 

Lewis, W. W., 281 

Liberty tree, 81, 84 

Library, free, 16, 73 

Lien law, 231 

Limestone College, 248 

Lincoln, Benjamin, 103, 105 

Lindo, Moses, 59 

Little Carpenter, 60, 63, 66 

Little Tennessee River, 61, 65 



Long Canes, 64, 155 

Long Island, 97 

Lord Proprietors: ask aid against Yemassees, 
34; break up Assembly, 45; Carolina 
given to, 7; change laws, 20; demand 
money for rent, 22, 24; equip ships, 9; 
fear king, 24; make laws, 8; names of, 7; 
Province taken away from, 48; quarrel 
with Yeamans, 12; Temporary Laws of, 
1 1 ; their agents, 45 

Low Country: Baptist churches in, 73; 
Harden fights British in, 125; in favor of 
United States Constitution, 144; planta- 
tion life described, 74, 147; settlements in, 
49, 55; slave holders of, 147; wealth aids 
Revolution, 95 

Lowndes, Rawlins, 101, 103, 156 

Lowndes, William, 154, 156-157 

Loyalists, 91, 94 

Ludwell, Philip, 25 

Lumber industry, 233 

Lutheran church, 70, 72, 250 

Lutheran Seminary, 250 

Lynch, Thos., 79, 100 

Lynch, Thos. Jr., 89, 100 

Lynches River, 112 

Lyttelton, Wm. Henry, 01, 63, 65 

Mackey, E. W. M., 229 

Mackey House, 229 

Magrath, Andrew G., 211 

Maham, Hezekiah, 126, 130 

" Maham's Tower," 126, 128 

Manigault, Gabriel, 70, 105 

Manning, John L., 180 

Manning, Richard I. (the elder), 160 

Manning, Richard I. (the younger), 256 

Marion, Francis, 62, 108, 120, 126, 129 

Mason, Wm., 89 

Mathews, John, 134, 135 

Mayson, James, 90, 91 

McCormick County, 67 

McDonald, Adam, 89 

McCully, Peter K., Jr., 281 

McDonald, James, 89 

McDuffie, Geo., 161, 167 

McGowan, Samuel, 194, 200 

Mcintosh, Alexander, 89 

McSweeney, Miles B., 252 

Means, John H., 178 

Medical College of South Carolina, 246 

Meriwether, McKie, 225 

Methodist church, 152, 249 

Middleton, Arthur, 50, 88, 100 

Middleton, Henry, 86, 150 

Militia: captured at Charles Town, 106 
Colleton calls out, 24; drills, 76, 87 
established, 19; fighting at Ninety-Six, 94 
improved, 26; in Cherokee War, 62; in 
Yemassee War, 34; negro, 218; St. 
Augustine, 28 

Miller, Stephen D., 160 

Montagu, Lord Charles Greville, 80, 82, 84 

Moore, James, 28 

Moore, John, 47 

Morgan, Daniel, 123 

Morris Island, 197 

Morton, Joseph, 19, 21, 23, 24 

Moses, Franklin J., Jr., 222, 224 

Motte, Charles, S9 

Motte, Isaac, 89 

Motte, Rebecca, 127 

Motte's, 127 

Moultrie, Wm., 62, 97, 133, 142 

Naval stores, 233 
Negro schools, 245 
Negro troops, 273 
Newberry College, 250 
New Bordeaux, 67 
Nicholson, Francis, 50 
Ninety-Six, 65, 90, 128 
Noble, Patrick, 167 
Non-importation, 84, 86 
North Island, 159 
Nullification, 165 

Oconee County, 54, 100, 133 

Oconostota, 62 

Oglethorpe, James Edward, 56 

One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment, 

270, 280 
One Hundred and Fifth Ammunition Train, 

One Hundred and Seventeenth Engineer 

Regiment, 271 
Oranfrcbiirgh, 72, 83, 103, 128 
Oraniiflnu'i; County, 132 
Oraugeljurgh township, 55 
Orphanages, 138 
Orr, James L., 212 
O'Sullivan Riot, 13 
Overseers, 146 
Oyster Point, 12 

Palmetto Regiment, 172 

Palmetto Sharpshooters, 192 

Parker, Thos., 34 

Parker, Sir Peter, 97 

Parliament, 9, 19, 21, 22 

Part-is Island, 3 

Partisans, 91 

Patriots, 91 

Patroon, 75 

Peedee River, 55 

Peedee section: British outrages in, 112, 117, 
121; cotton manufacturing in, 145; 
Marion's camp in, 112; Marion fights in, 
124; skirmishes in, 113; Tories subdued in, 

Pelzer, Francis J., 233 

Pelzer Manufacturing Co., 233 

Phosphate mining, 234 

Pickens, Andrew, 109, 123, 133 

Pickens County, 100 

Pickens, Francis W., 184, 190 

Piedmont Manufacturing Co., 232 

Piedmont section, 53, 67, 145 

Pinckney, Charles, 87, 138, 142, 150 

Pinckncy, Chas. Cotesworth, 88, 102, 153 

Pinckney, Thos., 89, 138, 142, 154 

Pirates: capture Wragg, 37; complained of, 
19, 26; Daniell's hangs, 36; Edward 
Thatch, 37; encouraged by king, 18; 
end of danger from, 44; fight at Cape 
Fear, 38-40; fight near Charles Town, 42; 
Moody, 43; pardon offered to, 36; Richard 
Worley, 43; Stede Bonnet, 38-40 

Pitt, Wm., 80 

Plantations, Low-country, 74 



Pocotaligo, 125 

Port Royal, 2, 21, 32, 56, 188 

Presbyterian church, 58, 70, 72, 76, 152, 250 

Presbyterian College, 250 

Prison ships, 116, 137 

Prohibition movement, 239, 256 

Providence, Island of, 36 

Provincial Congress, 87, 90, 95 

Public hbrary, 26, 73 

Public school system, 150, 243 

Pulaski, Count, 102 

Purry, John Peter, 55 

Purrysburgh, 103 

"Raid of the Dog Days," 130 

Railways, 169, 231, 233 

Ramsay, David, 116, 150 

Rawdon, Lord, 114, 124, 131 

Rawdontown, 127, 128 

Read, Jacob, 137 

Reconstruction, 210-229, 231 

" Red shirts," 226 

" Red sticks," 61 

" Regulators," 76 

"Renegades," 215 

Revolutionary War, 95-136' 

Rhett, Alfred, 197 

Rhett, Wm., 29, 38, 40 

Ribault, Jean, 2, 6, 21, 32 

Rice, gold, 25 

Richardson, James B., 150 

Richardson, John Peter (the elder), 167 

Richardson, John Peter (the younger), 236 

Richardson, Richard, 94 

Ripley, Roswell S., 184 

Road building, 19, 148, 157-158 

Roberts, Owen, 89 

Rutledge, Edward, 100, 116, 149 

Rutlcdge, John, 79, 95 101, 106, 133, 142 

Salley, 133 

Saluda River, 112 

Santee Canal, 149, 170 

Santee River, 55, 149 

Saunders, Roger Parker, 89 

Savage, Nathan, 127 

Sayle, William, 9, 10, 11 

"Scalawags," 215 

Schools, free, 30, 48, 72, 150 

Schools, pay, 72 

School system, public, 150, 232 

Scotch colony, 21, 23, 28, 32 

Scotch Irish, 67 

Scott. Robert K., 217, 221 

Scott, Wm., 89 

Seabrook, Whitemarsh B., 178 

Secret Committee, 88 

Selective draft, the, 266 

Settiquo, 60, 61 

"Share cropping," 230 

Simms, Wm. Gilmore, 173 (note) ; 205 

Simpson, W. D., 231 

Sims, James Marion, 175 

Slavery: abolished in northern states, 161; 

affects admission of new states, 162-163, 

176; after Revolution, 146; ended, 212; 

Southern feeling toward, 179; underground 

railroad, 177 
Slaves, Indian, IS 
Slaves, negro, 10, 18, 57, 76, 107, 161, 168 

Slave trade abolished, 141 

Smith, Chas. A., 256 

Smith, Thomas, 25 

Smyth, Ellison A., 233 

"Snow Camp," 94 

Snowden, Mrs. M. A., 251 

Snow Island, 112, 117, 123 

Sothell, Seth, 24, 25 

South Carolina University, 219 

South Carolina College, 149, 173, 243 

South Carolina Homespun Co., 145 

South Carolina, State of: adopts U. S. 
Constitution, 141; builds roads and canals, 
158; Constitutions for, 95, 101, 141, 151, 
241; cotton manufacturing in, 145, 232; 
created, 95; during War of 1812, 154-155; 
first officers of, 95; military camps in, 
266; opposes tariff, 141; Reconstruction 
in, 210-229; school system, 150-151; 
secedes from Union, 181; Senate, 101; 
Sherman's march through, 205; size of 
farms in, 144 

South Seas, 7 

Spartanburg, 222 

Spartanburg County, 113 

Springs, Holmes B., 281 

St. Augustine, 6, 21, 35, 116 

St. David's parish, 145 

St. Helena Island, 14 

St. Michael's church, 70, 182 

St. PhiUp's church, 70, 197 

Stamp Act, 78, 80, 86 

Stamped paper, 79 

Star of the West, 183 

State Board of Education, 244 

State Board of Public Welfare, 258 

State Highway Department, 259 

State Insane Asylum, 208, 218, 258 

State Penitentiary, 257 

State Sanitarium, 258 

State Warehouse, 259 

Stock law, 231 

Stuart, John, 66, 92 

Sullivan's Island, 13, 29, 98, 253 

Summerland College, 250 

Sumter, 160, 236 

Sumter Light Infantry, 252 

Sumter, Thomas, 109, 116, 121, 133, 141 

Swiss colonies, 55 

Tariff: helps New England, 141, 160; 
nullified, 165; of 1828, 160, 164; South 
Carolina opposes, 141, 160, 161 

Tarleton, Colonel, 107, 116 

Taylor, John, 160 

Tea culture, 254 

Temporary Laws, 11 

Telliquo, 60, 61 

Tennent, Wm. Henry, 91 

"The Gamecock," 110, 117, 120 

The South Carolina Gazette, 50, 145 

"The Swamp Fox," 109 

Theaters, 74 

Thirtieth Division, 270 

Thompson, Henry T., 252 

Thompson, Hugh S., 234, 236 

Thomson, Wm., 89, 94, 98 

Thurber, John, 24 

Tillman, Benjamin R., 237, 238 

Tillman, James H., 253 



Timrod, Henry, 174 
Tobacco, 254 
Tories, 91 
Townships, 55 
Trescot, Wm. Henry, 174 
Trott, Chief Justice, 40, 44 
Trucking industry, 254 
Tynte, Edward, 30 

Union, 221 

Union County, 121 

University of South Carolina, 237, 246 

Up-Country: capital moved nearer to, 138; 
Cherokees kill settlers in, 61, 76, 133; 
churches in, 72, 76, 152; cotton grown in, 
144, 147; cotton manufacturing in, 145, 
232, 253; courts in, 83; described, 53; 
forts in, 61; growth of, 148; immigration 
to, 67; Loyalists active in, 91-94, 100; 
ministers teach children, 76; "Reguja- 
tors," 76; uses Santee Canal, 149; white 
men go to, 52 

Vaccination, 150 
VanderHorst, Arnoldus, 149 
Villepigue, John C, 279 

Waccamaw River, 55 

Waddell, Moses, 155 

Wallace House, 228 

Wallace, Wm. H., 228 

Wars: Barnwell's expedition, 31; of 1812, 
153; Revolutionary, 95-135; St. Augus- 
tine expedition, 28; with Appalachians, 

29; with Cherokees, 60-68, 90, 133; with 
Germany, 261-286; with Kussoes, 11; 
with Mexico, 171-173; with United 
States, 184-209; with Spain, 252; with 
Yemassees, 33-35 

Washington, Geo., 90, 102, 131, 142 

Washington, Wm., 121, 142 

Watauga camp, 117 

Wateree River, 55 

Waxhaws, 107, 113, 124 

West, Joseph, 9, 12, 15, 19, 22, 24 

Weyman, Edward, 88 

Weymys, Major, 121 

Whipper, W. J., 224 

Whitmarsh, Thomas, 56 

Whitney, Eli, 143 

Williams, David Rogerson, 1.54, 158 

Williamsburg County, 117 

Williamsburgh township, 55 

Williamson, Andrew, 94, 100, 131 

Willington, 155 

Willtown church, 58 

Wilson, John Lyde, 160 

Winnsboro, 138, 208 

Winthrop College, 247 

Winyah Indigo Society, 72 

Wofford, Benjamin, 249 

WolTord College, 249 

World War, 261-286 

Wragg, Samuel, 37 

Yeamans, Sir John, 9, 12 

Yellow fever, 27, 29 

York County, 118, 121, 222 




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